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We used ChIP-Seq to map ERalpha binding sites and to profile changes in RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) occupancy in MCF-7 cells in response to estradiol (E2), tamoxifen or fulvestrant. We identified 10,205 high confidence ERalpha binding sites in response to E2 of which 68% contained an estrogen response element (ERE) and only 7% contained a FOXA1 motif. Remarkably, 596 genes already change significantly in RNAPII occupancy (59% up and 41% down) following one hour of E2 exposure. Although pausing of RNA polymerase II occurs frequently in MCF-7 cells (17%) it is only observed on a minority of E2-regulated genes (4%). Tamoxifen and fulvestrant partially reduce ERalpha DNA binding and prevent RNAPII loading on the promoter and coding body on E2-upregulated genes. Both antagonists act differently on E2-downregulated genes. Tamoxifen acts as an agonist, also downregulating these genes while fulvestrant antagonizes E2 induced repression and often increases RNAPII occupancy. Furthermore our data identified genes preferentially regulated by tamoxifen but not by E2 or fulvestrant. Thus, antagonist loaded ERalpha acts mechanistically different on E2-activated and E2-repressed genes. Examination of ERalpha binding sites upon the binding of different ligands and association with transcription via RNAPII occupancy.

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