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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous non-coding ~21 nucleotide (nt) RNAs that regulate gene expression at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels in plants and animals. They play an important role in development, abiotic stress responses or pathogen responses. miRNAs with their related target genes have been widely studied in model plants?and increasing studies have been performed on some crops?however, the number of identified miRNAs in cotton was limited, and global identification of related targets through degradome sequencing has not been developed previously. In this study, we globally identified small RNAs and their related target genes during cotton somatic embryogenesis by the high throughput small RNA and degradome sequencing technology using fresh hypocotyls and EC (embryogenic calli) of Gossypium hirsutum YZ1. A total of 36 differentially expressed conserved miRNA families of which 19 miRNA families represented by 29 precursors and 25 novel miRNAs were identified, with star sequences of 20 known miRNAs and 2 novel miRNAs discovered. 234 genes in EC and 322 genes in CK were identified as targets of 23 and 30 known miRNA families, and 16 genes were found as targets of 8 novel miRNAs. The expression profiles of several miRNAs and their targets were verified by qRT-PCR and 5’RACE were further used to validate the sliced sites of the targets. Interestingly, four TAS3 D6 and D7 were also found in both degradome libaries which can perfectly match their precursors. The profiling of the miRNAs and their target genes provides more information about the regulatory network of miRNAs during somatic embryogenesis in cotton. small RNA and degradome sequencing of CK(fresh hypocotyls) and EC (embryogenic calli) of Gossypium hirsutum YZ1

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