DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) represent a threat to the genome because they can lead to loss of genetic information and chromosome rearrangements. The DNA repair protein p53 binding protein 1 (53BP1) protects the genome by limiting nucleolytic processing of DSBs by a mechanism that requires its phosphorylation, but whether it does so directly is not known. Here we identify Rapl-interacting factor 1 (Rif1) as an Ataxia-Telangiectasia Mutated (ATM) phosphorylation-dependent interactor of 53BP1, and show that absence of Rif1 results in 5’-3’ DNA end resection in mice. Consistent with enhanced DNA resection, Rif1 deficiency impairs DNA repair in the G1 and S phases of the cell cycle, interferes with class switch recombination (CSR) in B lymphocytes, and leads to accumulation of chromosome DSBs. Study of Rif1 DNA-end protection activity against resection via analysis of single-stranded DNA binding protein RPA and Rad51 accumulation at sites of AID-induced DNA damage by ChIP-seq. All samples shown in Fig. 4 are included (controls and test samples, 7 samples in total).