The aim of this study was to identify new biomarkers and to investigate pathways involved in the progression of human carotid atheroma. The study was conducted from pieces of carotid endarterectomy collected in 32 hypertensive patients. The samples contained media and neo-intima without adventitia. They were paired, including for each patient one sample of the atheroma plaque (stage IV and over of the Stary classfication) containing core and shoulders of the plaque, and one sample of distant macroscopically intact tissue (stages I and II). In addition, clinical, biological and histological data were collected.