Bromodomain inhibition comprises a promising therapeutic strategy in cancer, particularly for hematologic malignancies. To date, however, genomic biomarkers to direct clinical translation have been lacking. We conducted a cell-based screen of genetically-defined cancer cell lines using a prototypical inhibitor of BET bromodomains. Integration of genetic features with chemosensitivity data revealed a robust correlation between MYCN amplification and sensitivity to bromodomain inhibition. We characterized the mechanistic and translational significance of this finding in neuroblastoma, a childhood cancer with frequent amplification of MYCN. Genome-wide expression analysis demonstrated downregulation of the MYCN transcriptional program accompanied by suppression of MYCN transcription. Functionally, bromodomain-mediated inhibition of MYCN impaired growth and induced apoptosis in neuroblastoma. BRD4 knock-down phenocopied these effects, establishing BET bromodomains as transcriptional regulators of MYCN. BET inhibition conferred a significant survival advantage in three in vivo neuroblastoma models, providing a compelling rationale for developing BET bromodomain inhibitors in patients with neuroblastoma. Significance: Biomarkers of response to small-molecule inhibitors of BET bromodomains, a new compound class with promising anti-cancer activity, have been lacking. Here, we reveal MYCN amplification as a strong genetic predictor of sensitivity to BET bromodomain inhibitors, demonstrate a mechanistic rationale for this finding, and provide a translational framework for clinical trial development of BET bromodomain inhibitors for pediatric patients with MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma. JQ1 is a novel thieno-triazolo-1,4-diazepine, which displaces BET bromodomains from chromatin by competitively binding to the acetyl lysine recognition pocket. BE(2)-C and Kelly cells were treated in triplicate with 1 µM JQ1 or DMSO for 24 hours. RNA was extracted and a decrease in MYCN transcript was confirmed by real time RT-PCR as described above. The samples were profiled using the Affymetrix PrimeView Human Gene Expression Array (Affymetrix) at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (Boston, MA, USA).