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The objective of this study was to investigate the roles of GSK3 inhibitor CHIR99021 and MEK inhibitor PD0325901 on 2i-adapted mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) in serum-free conditions.Canonical Wnt signaling supports the pluripotency of mouse ESCs but also promotes differentiation of early mammalian cell lineages. To explain these paradoxical observations, we explored the gene regulatory networks at play. Canonical Wnt signaling is intertwined with the pluripotency network comprising Nanog, Oct4, and Sox2 in mouse ESCs. In defined media supporting the derivation and propagation of mouse ESCs, Tcf3 and β-catenin interact with Oct4; Tcf3 binds to Sox motif within Oct-Sox composite motifs that are also bound by Oct4-Sox2 complexes. Further, canonical Wnt signaling up-regulates the activity of the Pou5f1 distal enhancer via the Sox motif in mouse ESCs. When viewed in the context of published studies on Tcf3 and β-catenin mutants, our findings suggest that Tcf3 counters pluripotency by competition with Sox2 at these sites, and Tcf3 inhibition is blocked by β-catenin entry into this complex. Wnt pathway stimulation also triggers β-catenin association at regulatory elements with classic Lef/Tcf motifs associated with differentiation programs. The failure to activate these targets in the presence of a MEK/ERK inhibitor essential for mouse ESC culture suggests that MEK/ERK signaling and canonical Wnt signaling combine to mouse promote ESC differentiation. Triplicates of mouse embryonic stem cells cultured under the following conditions: 1) CHIR99021+PD0325901+LIF; 2) CHIR99021+PD0325901; 3) CHIR99021; 4) PD0325901; 5) DMSO

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