MicroRNA (miRNA)-126 is a known regulator of hematopoietic stem cell quiescence. We engineered murine hematopoiesis to express miRNA-126 across all differentiation stages. Thirty percent of mice developed monoclonal B cell leukemia, which was prevented or regressed when a tetracycline-repressible miRNA-126 cassette was switched off. Regression was accompanied by upregulation of cell-cycle regulators and B cell differentiation genes, and downregulation of oncogenic signaling pathways. Expression of dominant-negative p53 delayed blast clearance upon miRNA-126 switch-off, highlighting the relevance of p53 inhibition in miRNA-126 addiction. Forced miRNA-126 expression in mouse and human progenitors reduced p53 transcriptional activity through regulation of multiple p53-related targets. miRNA-126 is highly expressed in a subset of human B-ALL, and antagonizing miRNA-126 in ALL xenograft models triggered apoptosis and reduced disease burden. Study 1: Turning off miR-126 expression from an experimental murine B-ALL in vivo; Study 2: Modulation of miR-126 expression in human cord blood stem and progenitor cell populations in vitro.