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The activation of TLR-MyD88 (Toll like receptor- Myeloid differentiation factor 88) signaling within T cells functions as a potent costimulatory signal that boosts antitumor and antiviral responses. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the costimulatory processes are poorly understood. We compared microarray gene analysis data between TLR1-TLR2 stimulated and unstimulated T cell receptor transgenic ‘pmel’ and MyD88-/-pmel CD8+ T cells and identified changes in the expression levels of several TNF family members. In particular, TLR-stimulation increased 4-1BB levels in pmel but not in MyD88-/-pmel T cells. A link between 4-1BB and TLR1-TLR2 signaling in CD8+ T cells was highlighted by in fact that 4-1BB-/- T cells exhibited suboptimal responses to TLR1-TLR2 agonist, but responded normally to CD28 or OX40 costimulation. Moreover, blocking 4-1BB signaling with antibodies also hindered the costimulatory effects of the TLR1-TLR2 agonist. The elevated levels of 4-1BB transcripts in TLR1-TLR2–stimulated cells were not due to increased mRNA stability nor increased histone activation but instead were associated with increased binding of p65 and c-Jun to two distinct 4-1BB promoter sites. Combining TLR1-TLR2 ligand with an agonistic anti-4-1BB antibody enhanced the antitumor activity in mice with established melanoma tumors. These studies reveal that the costimulatory effects of TLR1-TLR2 signaling in CD8+ T cells are in part mediated by 4-1BB and are important for mounting an effective antitumor immune response. CD8+ T cells from the B6.Cg-Thy1/Cy Tg(TcraTcrb)8Rest/J mice, referred to as ‘pmel’ T cells or from MyD88 knockout pmel mice (MyD88–/–pmel) were sorted. pmel and MyD88–/–pmel T cells were activated using MyD88–/– CD8 T cell-depleted splenocytes pulsed with 10ng/ml of mgp100. This was with or without 10µg/ml of Pam3CSK4. pmel or MyD88–/–pmel CD8 T cells were enriched and used for the extraction of RNA used for genomic analysis.

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