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Treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) has been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects such as decreased growth factors and cytokines in animal models, this effect however, has not been investigated in kidney transplant recipients. We aimed to study the effect of ACEI or ARB treatment on intragraft gene expression profiles of transplant kidney biopsies using microarrays. Both groups had similar demographic characteristics in terms of age, race, sex, type of transplant, previous history of transplantation or acute rejection, panel reactive antibody levels, and immunosuppressive treatment. There were no differences in acute and chronic Banff allograft injury scores between the 2 Groups. Intragraft gene expression profiles of ACEI or ARB treated Group 2 biopsies showed decreased gene transcripts of interferon-gamma and rejection-associated transcripts (GRIT) and constitutive macrophage-associated transcripts (CMAT) compared to Group 1 biopsies. There were no statistically significant differences in expression of cytotoxic T cell (CAT), regulatory T cell (TREG), B-cell (BAT), natural killer cell (NKAT), or endothelial cell-associated transcripts (ENDAT) between the 2 Groups. Our data suggest that exposure to ACEI or ARB was associated with down-regulation of GRIT and CMAT. This anti-inflammatory effect of ACEI or ARB treatment could be an additional benefit in kidney transplant recipients. We identified 29 near normal biopsies with chronic sum allograft injury score (ct+ci+cv) ≤ 3 for gene expression profiling comparing 2 groups; Group 1 (n=16), patients with no exposure of ACEI or ARB treatment and Group 2 patients (n=13) with exposure to ACEI or ARB at least 6 months prior to kidney biopsy. Biopsies with a diagnosis of acute or chronic rejection, recurrent or de novo glomerular disease, or polyoma nephropathy were excluded.

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