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Cardiac fibroblasts convert to myofibroblasts with injury to mediate healing after acute myocardial infarction and to mediate long-standing fibrosis with chronic disease. Myofibroblasts remain a poorly defined cell-type in terms of their origins and functional effects in vivo. Methods: Here we generate Postn (periostin) gene-targeted mice containing a tamoxifen inducible Cre for cellular lineage tracing analysis. This Postn allele identifies essentially all myofibroblasts within the heart and multiple other tissues. Results: Lineage tracing with 4 additional Cre-expressing mouse lines shows that periostin-expressing myofibroblasts in the heart derive from tissue-resident fibroblasts of the Tcf21 lineage, but not endothelial, immune/myeloid or smooth muscle cells. Deletion of periostin+ myofibroblasts reduces collagen production and scar formation after myocardial infarction. Periostin-traced myofibroblasts also revert back to a less activated state upon injury resolution. Conclusions: Our results define the myofibroblast as a periostin-expressing cell-type necessary for adaptive healing and fibrosis in the heart, which arises from Tcf21+ tissue-resident fibroblasts. Fluidigm C1 whole genome transcriptome analysis of lineage mapped cardiac myofibroblasts

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