Murine C2C12 cells: GTP-stimulated cells vs. Control in DM
ABSTRACT: To define the signalling of extracellular GTP as enhancer of myogenesis, we investigated if the gene expression profile of differentiated C2C12 cells (4 hours in DM) was affected by extracellular GTP. Two-condition experiment, GTP-treated C2C12 cells vs Control C2C12 cells at 4 h of differentiation. Biological replicates: 1 control, 1 GTP-treated cells, independently grown and harvested. One replicate per array.
Project description:To define the signalling of extracellular GTP as enhancer of myogenesis, we investigated if the gene expression profile of differentiated C2C12 cells (4 and 24 hours in SM) was affected by extracellular GTP. Two-condition experiment, GTP-treated C2C12 cells vs Control C2C12 cells at 4 h and 24 h of differentiation. Biological replicates: 1 control, 1 GTP-treated cells, independently grown and harvested. One replicate per array.
Project description:KSRP knock-down and BMP2 treatment produce a largely overlapping reshape of the transcriptome in C2C12 cells. microRNAs (miRNAs) are essential regulators of development, physiology, and evolution with miRNA biogenesis being strictly controlled at multiple levels. Regulatory proteins, such as KH-type splicing regulatory protein (KSRP), modulate rates and timing of the enzymatic reactions responsible for maturation of select miRNAs from their primary transcripts in response to specific stimuli. Induction of myogenic miRNAs (myomiRs) is essential for muscle differentiation with KSRP phosphorylation being required to convey myogenic signals to enhanced myomiR maturation. Here we show that either KSRP silencing or Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP)2-signaling activation in mesenchimal C2C12 cells prevented myogenic differentiation while induced osteoblastic differentiation as revealed by the reshaping of the whole transcriptome analyzed by RNA deep-sequencing. The most striking feature common to both BMP2 signaling activation and KSRP silencing was a blockade of myomiR maturation. Our results demonstrate that phosphorylated SMAD proteins, the transducers of BMP signaling, associate with KSRP and block its interaction with primary-myomiRs. This, in turn, abrogates KSRP-dependent myomiR maturation with the knock-down of SMAD4, 5, and 9 being able to rescue KSRP function. SMAD-induced blockade of KSRP-dependent myomiR maturation, in parallel to the well known SMAD function on gene transcription, inhibits C2C12 cell differentiation into myofibers and contributes to orient cells towards osteoblast lineage. We propose that remodeling of co-regulatory complexes affecting primary-miRNA processing is a mechanism well suited to guide cell fate determination in eukaryotes. Total RNA was prepared from 1. untreated mock-transfected C2C12 cells; 2. BMP2-treated mock-transfected C2C12 cells; 3. untreated shKSRP-transfected C2C12 cells and analyzed by RNA-seq
Project description:MicroRNAs are well known to mediate translational repression and mRNA degradation in the cytoplasm. Various microRNAs have also been detected in membrane-compartmentalized organelles, but the functional significance has remained elusive. Here we report that miR-1, a microRNA specifically induced during myogenesis, efficiently enters the mitochondria where it unexpectedly stimulates, rather than represses, the translation of specific mitochondrial genome-encoded transcripts. We show that this positive effect requires specific miR:mRNA base-pairing and Ago2, but not its functional partner GW182, which is excluded from the mitochondria. We provide evidence for the direct action of Ago2 in mitochondrial translation by Ago2 CrossLinking ImmunoPrecipitation coupled with sequencing (CLIP-seq), functional rescue with mitochondria-targeted Ago2, and selective inhibition of the microRNA machinery in the cytoplasm. These findings unveil a positive function of microRNA in mitochondrial translation and suggest a highly coordinated myogenic program via miR-1 mediated translational stimulation in the mitochondria and repression in the cytoplasm. Examination of miRNA's regulation function in mitochondria in C2C12 myoblasts cells and myotubes cells with CLIP-seq (Ago2).
Project description:To predict Rp58-regulated gene involved in myogenesis, RNA profiling experiments were performed, comparing RNA derived from C2C12 with or without expressing shRNA for Rp58. As a result, 271 genes were upregulated in C2C12 stably expressing shRNA-Rp58 cells compared with control C2C12 cells. As Rp58 is repressor in C2C12, we hypothesized that Rp58 regulates gene cluster which expression is downregulated in accordance with Rp58 expression and myogenesis progression. In this regard, we also characterized dynamic gene expression patterns during myogenesis by microarray at 4 different stage (GM, day 0, 2, 4) of C2C12 myogenesis assays and found that 399 genes expression is characterized as downregulation pattern during myogenesis. Importantly, this down regulation gene set and upregulated genes by shRNA for Rp58 were highly overlapped. Experiment Overall Design: C2C12 murine skeletal muscle cells were purchased from American Type Experiment Overall Design: culture Collection (ATCC). These cells were mainteined in GM (DMEM Experiment Overall Design: supplemented with 10% FBS). Cells were grown in GM and after reaching Experiment Overall Design: counfluence, the medium was switched to DM (DMEM supplemented with 2% hourse serum) and further incubated. The medium was changed every 2 days. Culture was performed by using within five passages cells. For the experiment of shRNA for Rp58, transfection was performed by using Lipofectamin 2000 (Invitrogen). Stable transfectants were obtained by selection of the transfected C2C12 cells for two weeks. Experiment Overall Design: Microarray analysis - RNA was isolated as described from C2C12, and cRNA was synthesized. 10 ug of cRNA were hybridized to Affymetrix mouse 430 2.0 arrays. Intensity values were quantified using RMA algorithm. Experiment Overall Design: MAPPFinder (www.genmapp.org) was used to integrate expression data with known pathways.
Project description:Skeletal muscle contains long multinucleated and contractile structures known as muscle fibers, which arise from the fusion of myoblasts into nucleated myotubes during myogenesis. The myogenic regulatory factor (MRF) MYF5 is the earliest to be expressed during myogenesis and functions as a transcription factor in muscle progenitor cells (satellite cells) and myocytes. In mouse C2C12 myocytes, MYF5 is implicated in the initial steps of myoblast differentiation into myotubes. Ribonucleoprotein immunoprecipitation (RIP) analysis showed that MYF5 bound a subset of myoblast mRNAs; prominent among them was Ccnd1 mRNA, which encodes the key cell cycle regulator CCND1 (Cyclin D1). Biotin-RNA pulldown, UV-crosslinking, and gel shift experiments indicated that MYF5 was capable of binding the 3' untranslated region (UTR) and the coding region (CR) of Ccnd1 mRNA. MYF5 silencing in proliferating growing myoblasts revealed that and MYF5 promoted CCND1 translation, and it also modestly increased transcription of Ccnd1 mRNA. Importantly, silencing MYF5 reduced myoblast growth as well as differentiation of myoblasts into myotubes, while overexpressing MYF5 in C2C12 cells upregulated CCND1 expression. We propose that MYF5 enhances early myogenesis in part by coordinately elevating Ccnd1 transcription and Ccnd1 mRNA translation. Four replicates were utilized from either Control (IgG) or MYF5-immunoprecipitated RNA samples from C2C12 cells growing in either growth medium (GM) or differentiation medium (DM) for a total of sixteen samples.
Project description:We newly identified skeletal muscle differentiation-associated miRNAs by comparing miRNA expression profile between C2C12 cell and Wnt4-overexpressing C2C12 cell. miR-487b, miR-3963 and miR-6412 are significantly down-regulated in differentiating C2C12 cells, and transfection of their mimics resulted in reduced expression of myogenic differentiation markers including Troponin T, myosin heavy chain fast and slow type. Single analysis for each condition (proliferating C2C12 cells, differentiating C2C12 cells, proliferating Wnt4-overexpressing C2C12 subline cells
Project description:Transcriptional profiling of mouse myoblast cells comparing control vs. Mybbp1a knockdown. Stable clones of C2C12 cells harboring control or Mybbp1a-targeting shRNA were established and further pooled for analysis. Goal was to determine, based on the effects of Mybbp1a depletion on global gene expression, candidate downstream target genes of Mybbp1a, a putative transcriptional co-repressor. Two-condition experiment, control vs. Mybbp1a knockdown C2C12 cells (mixed stable clones). Biological replicates: 2.
Project description:In skeletal muscle differentiation, muscle-specific genes are regulated by two groups of transcription factors, the MyoD and MEF2 families, which work together to drive the differentiation process. Here we show that ERK5 regulates muscle cell fusion through Klf transcription factors. The inhibition of ERK5 activity suppresses muscle cell fusion with minimal effects on the expression of MyoD, MEF2, and their target genes. Promoter analysis coupled to microarray assay reveals that Klf-binding motifs are highly enriched in the promoter regions of ERK5-dependent upregulated genes. Remarkably, Klf2 and Klf4 expression are also upregulated during differentiation in an ERK5-dependent manner, and knockdown of Klf2 or Klf4 specifically suppresses muscle cell fusion. Moreover, we show that the Sp1 transcription factor links ERK5 to Klf2/4, and that nephronectin, a Klf transcriptional target, is involved in muscle cell fusion. Therefore, an ERK5/Sp1/Klf module plays a key role in the fusion process during skeletal muscle differentiation. To identify those genes whose expression levels are regulated by the ERK5 pathway in differentiating C2C12 cells, we performed genome-wide analysis by using Affymetrix GeneChip oligonucleotide microarrays. We performed two independent experiments. For each experiment, we used five samples: cells in growth medium (0 day), lacZ-infected cells at two time points (2.5 days and 4.5 days of differentiation) and dnMEK5-infected cells at two time points (2.5 days and 4.5 days of differentiation). Each virus was infected at 1 day of differentiation. Total RNA was prepared using the RNeasy Mini Kit (Qiagen) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The total RNA of each condition was obtained from two independent experiments. Synthesis of cDNA in vitro transcription and biotin labeling cRNA, and hybridization to the Mouse Genome 430 2.0 array (Affymetrix) were performed according to Affymetrix protocols. Hybridized arrays were scanned using an Affymetrix GeneChip Scanner. Scanned Chip images were analyzed with GeneChip operating Software v.1.4 (GCOS) and GeneSpring GX 11.0.2. (Agilent technologies).
Project description:We used microarrays to characterize the global changes in gene expression in C2C12 cells due to siRNA knockdown of long non-coding RNA H19 Control siRNA or siRNA specific for mouse H19 were transfected into day1 differentiating C2C12 myoblasts in triplicates. 40 H later total RNAs were isolated and subjected with microarray analysis.