Distinct gene expression profiles of viral- and non-viral associated Merkel cell carcinoma revealed by transcriptome analysis
ABSTRACT: Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is an aggressive cutaneous neuroendocrine tumor with high mortality rates. Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), identified in the majority of MCC, may drive tumorigenesis via viral T antigens. However, mechanisms underlying pathogenesis in MCPyV-negative MCC remain poorly understood. To nominate genes contributing to pathogenesis of MCPyV-negative MCC, we performed DNA microarray analysis on 30 MCCs. MCPyV status of MCCs was determined by PCR for viral DNA and RNA. 1593 probe-sets were differentially expressed between MCPyV-negative and -positive MCC, with significant differential expression defined as at least 2-fold change in either direction and p-value of ≤ 0.05. MCPyV-negative tumors showed decreased RB1 expression, whereas MCPyV-positive tumors were enriched for immune response genes. Validation studies included immunohistochemistry demonstration of decreased RB protein expression in MCPyV-negative tumors and increased peritumoral CD8+ T lymphocytes surrounding MCPyV-positive tumors. In conclusion, our data suggest that loss of RB1 expression may play an important role in tumorigenesis of MCPyV-negative MCC. Functional and clinical validation studies are needed to determine whether this tumor suppressor pathway represents an avenue for targeted therapy. We used microarrays to characterize global gene expression patterns related to Merkel cell polyomavirus status in Merkel cell carcinoma. Furthermore, we compared Merkel cell carcinoma to less aggressive primary cutaneous carcinomas. We utilized flash-frozen tumor tissue from primary Merkel cell carcinomas, metastatic Merkel cell carcinomas, primary cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas, and basal cell carcinomas. Merkel cell carcinoma cell lines, which represent a pure population of tumor cells, were also included. Merkel cell polyomavirus status was determined at the DNA and RNA level using multiple primers for viral T-antigen and capsid protein sequences. This Series represents two analyses - one with new Samples normalized together, and another with some of the new Samples re-normalized with Samples previously submitted under Series GSE13355. The latter group contain 'renormalized' in the titles.
Project description:MicroRNAs have been implicated in various skin cancers, including melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma; however, the expression of microRNAs and their role in Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) have yet to be explored in depth. To identify microRNAs specific to MCC (MCC-miRs), next-generation sequencing (NGS) of small RNA libraries was performed on different tissue samples including MCCs, other cutaneous tumors, and normal skin. Comparison of the profiles identified several microRNAs upregulated and downregulated in MCC. For validation, their expression was measured via qRT-PCR in a larger group of MCC and in a comparison group of non-MCC cutaneous tumors and normal skin. Eight microRNAs were upregulated in MCC: miR-502-3p, miR-9, miR-7, miR-340, miR-182, miR-190b, miR-873, and miR-183. Three microRNAs were downregulated: miR-3170, miR-125b, and miR-374c. Many of these MCC-miRs, with the miR-183/182/96a cistron in particular, have connections to tumorigenic pathways implicated in MCC pathogenesis. In situ hybridization confirmed that the highly expressed MCC-miR, miR-182, is localized within tumor cells. Furthermore, NGS and qRT-PCR reveals that several of these MCC-miRs are highly expressed in the patient-derived MCC cell line, MS-1. These data indicate that we have identified a set of MCC-miRs with high implications for MCC research. To identify microRNAs specific to Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) next-generation sequencing (NGS) of small RNA libraries was performed on different tissue samples including MCCs, other cutaneous tumors, and normal skin
Project description:Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a polyomavirus-associated skin cancer that is frequently lethal and lacks established prognostic biomarkers. The purpose of this study was to use gene expression analysis to identify biomarkers that may improve prognostic accuracy and provide insight into MCC biology. Overall design: We profiled 35 tumors from 34 patients. Tumors were macrodissected from surrounding stroma. RNA isolation was performed with RNeasy or Allprep Mini kits (Qiagen, Alameda, CA), and RNA quality assessed by Agilent Bioanalyzer analysis. RNAs were profiled on the Human Rosetta Custom Affymetrix 2.0 chip.
Project description:Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a polyomavirus-associated skin cancer that is frequently lethal and lacks established prognostic biomarkers. The purpose of this study was to use gene expression analysis to identify biomarkers that may improve prognostic accuracy and provide insight into MCC biology. We profiled 35 tumors from 34 patients. Tumors were macrodissected from surrounding stroma. RNA isolation was performed with RNeasy or Allprep Mini kits (Qiagen, Alameda, CA), and RNA quality assessed by Agilent Bioanalyzer analysis. RNAs were profiled on the Human Rosetta Custom Affymetrix 2.0 chip.
Project description:Merkel cell carcinoma is a skin cancer associated with the Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) which is found integrated in the genome of the tumor cells. Here 4 MCPyV-positive tumor cell lines (AlDo, LoKe, BroLi and WoWe) were analyzed by comparative gernomic hybridization to define further genetic alterations. Corresponding peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) in case of AlDo and LoKe, purified T cells in case of BroLi and Tumor-derived but virus-negative cells of unknown origin (WoWe1) in case of WoWe served as controls. Overall design: Comparative genomic hybridization to define amplifications and deletions in the MCC genome.
Project description:Merkel cell carcinoma is supposed to be derived from Merkel cells after infection by Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV) and other poorly known events. A transcriptional profiling with cDNA microarrays was performed on cells from MCV+ Merkel cell carcinomas and isolated normal Merkel cells. This microarray revealed numerous significantly upregulated genes and down-regulated genes. The extensive list of genes identified in these experiments provides a large body of potentially valuable information of Merkel cell carcinoma carcinogenesis and could represent a source of potential targets for cancer therapy. Two-conditions experiment, MCV vs Normal Merkel Cell. Biological replicates : 4 MCV (Cy5), 1 control = pool of Normal Merkel cells from 3 liftings
Project description:Merkel cell carcinoma is supposed to be derived from Merkel cells after infection by Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) and other poorly known events. A transcriptional profiling with cDNA microarrays was performed on cells from MCPyV(+) Merkel cell carcinomas and isolated normal Merkel cells. This microarray revealed numerous significantly upregulated genes and downregulated genes. The extensive list of genes identified in these experiments provides a large body of potentially valuable information of Merkel cell carcinoma carcinogenesis and could represent a source of potential targets for cancer therapy. Overall design: Three-condition experiment: MCPyV(+), MCPyV(-) and Normal Merkel Cells. Biological replicates: 4 MCPyV(+) and 1 MCPyV(-)(Cy5), 1 control = pool of Normal Merkel cells from 3 liftings (Cy3).
Project description:Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) is an etiological agent of Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), a highly aggressive skin cancer. The MCPyV small tumor antigen (ST) is required for maintenance of MCC and can transform normal cells. To gain insight into cellular perturbations induced by MCPyV ST, we performed transcriptome analysis of normal human fibroblasts with inducible expression of ST. MCPyV ST dynamically alters the cellular transcriptome with increased levels of glycolytic genes, including the monocarboxylate lactate transporter SLC16A1 (MCT1). Extracellular flux analysis revealed increased lactate export reflecting elevated aerobic glycolysis in ST expressing cells. Inhibition of MCT1 activity suppressed the growth of MCC cell lines and impaired MCPyV-dependent transformation of IMR90 cells. Both NF-κB and MYC have been shown to regulate MCT1 expression. While MYC was required for MCT1 induction, MCPyV-induced MCT1 levels decreased following knockdown of the NF-κB subunit RelA, supporting a synergistic activity between MCPyV and MYC in regulating MCT1 levels. Several MCC lines had high levels of MYCL and MYCN but not MYC. Increased levels of MYCL was more effective than MYC or MYCN in increasing extracellular acidification in MCC cells. Our results demonstrate the effects of MCPyV ST on the cellular transcriptome and reveal that transformation is dependent, at least in part, on elevated aerobic glycolysis. Overall design: Expression of MCPyV ST or GFP was induced in IMR90 fibroblasts, and triplicate RNA samples were extracted and sequenced every 8 hours for a total of 96 hours
Project description:When using cell lines to study cancer, phenotypic similarity to the original tumor is paramount. Yet, little has been done to characterize how closely Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) cell lines model native tumors. To determine their similarity to MCC tumor samples, we characterized MCC cell lines via gene expression microarrays. Using whole transcriptome gene expression signatures and a computational bioinformatic approach, we identified significant differences between variant cell lines (UISO, MCC13, and MCC26) and fresh frozen MCC tumors. Conversely, the classic WaGa and Mkl-1 cell lines more closely represented the global transcriptome of MCC tumors. When compared to publicly available cancer lines, WaGa and Mkl-1 cells were similar to other neuroendocrine tumors, but the variant cell lines were not. WaGa and Mkl-1 cells grown as xenografts in mice had histological and immunophenotypical features consistent with MCC, while UISO xenograft tumors were atypical for MCC. Spectral karyotyping and short tandem repeat analysis of the UISO cells matched the original cell line's description, ruling out contamination. Our results validate the use of transcriptome analysis to assess the cancer cell line representativeness and indicate that UISO, MCC13, and MCC26 cell lines are not representative of MCC tumors, whereas WaGa and Mkl-1 more closely model MCC. RNA was extracted from MCC cell lines and MCC and SCLC tumor samples and hybridized to Affymetrix microarrays for transcriptome profiling.
Project description:We performed miRNA expression profiling in a series of human Merkel Cell carcinoma samples using a microarray approach. Significant differentially expressed miRNAs among groups were identified using SAM analysis. Agilent microarray platform containing 723 human miRNAs was used to determine miRNA expression profiles in 16 human Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) samples. To validate the microarray platform, the expression levels of selected miRNAs were evaluated using qRT-PCR.