Identification of transcription factors potentially involved in the juvenile to adult phase transition in rough lemon (C. jambirhi Lush.)
ABSTRACT: The main objective of the present study was to identify citrus transcrition factors putatively involved in the juvenile to adult transition in citrus. A oligonucleotide microarray containing 1152 putative unigenes of citrus transcription factors was used. Rough lemon (C. jambirhi Lush.), were analyzed in two diferent developmental stages, junenile and adult. Four replicates for each sample category were generated and for each genotipe juvenile versus adult samples were compared . Comparative transcriptomic hybridization
Project description:The main objective of the present study was to identify citrus transcrition factors putatively involved in the juvenile to adult transition in citrus. A oligonucleotide microarray containing 1152 putative unigenes of citrus transcription factors was used. Pineapple sweet orange (C. sinensis (L.) was analyzed in two diferent developmental stages, junenile and adult. Four replicates for each sample category were generated and for each genotipe juvenile versus adult samples were compared . Comparative transcriptomic hybridization
Project description:The main objective of the present study was to analyze the effect of a severe isolate of CEVd on gene expression of Etrog citron plants was performed not only in late (post-symptomatic) stages of infection but also in early (pre-symptomatic) stages. A genome-wide 20K cDNA mycroarray of citrus was used. Four replicates for each sample category (time-point 0: healthy plants; time-point 1: infected plants at the symptomless stage; time-point 2: infected plants at the symptomatic stage) were generated and compared by a reference design .
Project description:Transcription profiling of citrus rootstock Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf. Keywords: Abiotic stress (Iron chlorosis) Total RNA from four replicates for each sample category (Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf watered for 60 days with 18 uM Fe-EDDHA or without Fe-EDDHA) were generated and compared.
Project description:The main objective of the present study was to analyze whether the novel phenotype of this complex three-way tetraploid interspecific hybrid, displaying mixed dominant, codominant and transgressive traits is associated with non additive expression of the two diploid parental genomes. Keywords: Comparative transcriptomic hybridization Three replicates for each sample category (C. reticulata Blanco, C. limon (L.) Burm.) and a allotetraploid somatic hybrid between both) were generated and compared by a reference design.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The juvenile to adult transition (JAT) in higher plants is required for them to reach reproductive competence. However, it is a poorly understood process in woody plants, where only a few genes have been definitely identified as being involved in this transition. This work aims at increasing our understanding of the mechanisms regulating the JAT in citrus. METHODS: Juvenile and adult plants from Pineapple sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) and Rough lemon (C. jambhiri) were used to screen for differentially expressed transcription factors (TFs) using a 1·15K microarray developed on the basis of the CitrusTF database. Murcott tangor (C. reticulata × C. sinensis) and Duncan grapefruit (C. paradisi) were incorporated into the quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR validation in order to select those genes whose phase-specific regulation was common to the four species. KEY RESULTS: A browsable web database has been created with information about the structural and functional annotation related to 1152 unigenes of putative citrus TFs (CTFs). This database constitutes a valuable resource for research on transcriptional regulation and comparative genomics. Moreover, a microarray has been developed and used that contains these putative CTFs, in order to identify eight genes that showed differential expression in juvenile and adult meristems of four different species of citrus. Those genes have been characterized, and their expression pattern in vegetative and reproductive tissues has been analysed. Four of them are MADS-box genes, a family of TFs involved in developmental processes, whereas another one resembles MADS-box genes but lacks the MADS box itself. The other three showed high partial sequence similarity restricted to specific Arabidopsis protein domains but negligible outside those domains. CONCLUSIONS: The work presented here indicates that the JAT in citrus could be controlled by mechanisms that are in part common to those of Arabidopsis, but also somehow different, since specific factors without Arabidopsis orthologues have also been characterized. The potential involvement of the genes in the JAT is discussed.
Project description:Flavorants such as lemon extract that activate olfactory receptors may also evoke or enhance flavor qualities such as sour and sweet that are typically considered gustatory. Similarly, flavorants such as sucrose and citric acid that activate gustatory receptors may enhance flavors such as citrus that are typically considered olfactory. Here, we ask how lemon extract, sucrose, and citric acid, presented separately and together, affect sweet, sour, and citrus flavors. We accomplished this by testing, in the same 12 subjects, lemon extract and sucrose (Experiment 1), lemon extract and citric acid (Experiment 2), and lemon extract, sucrose, and citric acid (Experiment 3). Results showed that both lemon extract and citric acid increased the ratings of citrus and sour intensity. Lemon extract did not affect sweet, but citric acid did, mainly in Experiment 3. Sucrose systematically increased only sweet intensity and modulated the effect of lemon extract on sour. The most robust multiquality effect was the enhancement of sour by lemon extract. These outcomes suggest, first, a role played by experience with the statistical associations of gustatory and olfactory flavorants and, second, that lemon flavor is complex, having citrus and sour qualities that may not be fully separable in perception.
Project description:Huanglongbing (HLB) in citrus infected by Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) has caused tremendous losses to the citrus industry. No resistant genotypes have been identified in citrus species or close relatives. Among citrus varieties, rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri) has been considered tolerant due to its ability to produce a healthy flush of new growth after infection. The difference between tolerance and susceptibility is often defined by the speed and intensity of a plant's response to a pathogen, especially early defense responses. RNA-seq data were collected from three biological replicates of CLas- and mock-inoculated rough lemon and sweet orange at week 0 and 7 following infection. Functional analysis of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) indicated that genes involved in the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway were highly upregulated in rough lemon. MAPK induces the transcription of WRKY and other transcription factors which potentially turn on multiple defense-related genes. A Subnetwork Enrichment Analysis further revealed different patterns of regulation of several functional categories, suggesting DEGs with different functions were subjected to reprogramming. In general, the amplitude of the expression of defense-related genes is much greater in rough lemon than in sweet orange. A quantitative disease resistance response may contribute to the durable tolerance level to HLB observed in rough lemon.
Project description:To obtain insight into potential mechanisms underlying the influence of rootstock on scion growth, we performed a comparative analysis of 'Shatangju' mandarin grafted onto 5 rootstocks: Fragrant orange (Citrus junons Sieb. ex. Tanaka), Red tangerine (Citrus reticulata Blanco), 'Shatangju' mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco), Rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri Lush) and Canton lemon (Citrus limonia Osbeck). The tree size of 'Shatangju' mandarin grafted onto Canton lemon and Rough lemon were the largest, followed by self-rooted rootstock trees, and the lowest tree sizes correspond to ones grafted on Red tangerine and Fragrant orange rootstocks. The levels of indoleacetic acid (IAA) and gibberellin (GA) were significantly and positively related to growth vigor. The differences of gene expression in leaves of trees grafted onto Red tangerine, Canton lemon and 'Shatangju' mandarin were analyzed by RNA-Seq. Results showed that more differentially expressed genes involved in oxidoreductase function, hormonal signal transduction and the glycolytic pathway were enriched in 'Red tangerine vs Canton lemon'. qRT-PCR analysis showed that expression levels of ARF1, ARF8, GH3 and IAA4 were negatively correlated with the growth vigor and IAA content. The metabolism of GA was influenced by the differential expression of KO1 and GA2OX1 in grafted trees. In addition, most of antioxidant enzyme genes were up-regulated in leaves of trees grafted onto Red tangerine, resulting in a higher peroxidase activity. We concluded that different rootstocks significantly affected the expression of genes involved in auxin signal transduction pathway and GA biosynthesis pathway in the grafted plants, and then regulated the hormone levels and their signal pathways.
Project description:Grapefruit and lemon pectin obtained from the respective waste citrus peels via hydrodynamic cavitation in water only are powerful, broad-scope antimicrobials against Gram-negative and -positive bacteria. Dubbed IntegroPectin, these pectic polymers functionalized with citrus flavonoids and terpenes show superior antimicrobial activity when compared to commercial citrus pectin. Similar to commercial pectin, lemon IntegroPectin determined ca. 3-log reduction in Staphylococcus aureus cells, while an enhanced activity of commercial citrus pectin was detected in the case of Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells with a minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of 15 mg mL-1. Although grapefruit and lemon IntegroPectin share equal MBC in the case of P. aeruginosa cells, grapefruit IntegroPectin shows boosted activity upon exposure of S. aureus cells with a 40 mg mL-1 biopolymer concentration affording complete killing of the bacterial cells. Insights into the mechanism of action of these biocompatible antimicrobials and their effect on bacterial cells, at the morphological level, were obtained indirectly through Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy and directly through scanning electron microscopy. In the era of antimicrobial resistance, these results are of great societal and sanitary relevance since citrus IntegroPectin biomaterials are also devoid of cytotoxic activity, as already shown for lemon IntegroPectin, opening the route to the development of new medical treatments of polymicrobial infections unlikely to develop drug resistance.
Project description:Specificity in the interaction between rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri Lush.) and the fungal pathogen Alternaria alternata rough lemon pathotype is determined by a host-selective toxin, ACR-toxin. Mitochondria from rough lemon are sensitive to ACR-toxin whereas mitochondria from resistant plants, including other citrus species, are resistant. We have identified a C. jambhiri mitochondrial DNA sequence, designated ACRS (ACR-toxin sensitivity gene), that confers toxin sensitivity to Escherichia coli. ACRS is located in the group II intron of the mitochondrial tRNA-Ala and is translated into a SDS-resistant oligomeric protein in C. jambhiri mitochondria but is not translated in the toxin-insensitive mitochondria. ACRS is present in the mitochondrial genome of both toxin-sensitive and -insensitive citrus. However, in mitochondria of toxin-insensitive plants, the transcripts from ACRS are shorter than those in mitochondria of sensitive plants. These results demonstrate that sensitivity to ACR-toxin and hence specificity of the interaction between A. alternata rough lemon pathotype and C. jambhiri is due to differential posttranscriptional processing of a mitochondrial gene.