The disparate twins: A comparative study of CXCR4 and CXCR7 in SDF-1α-induced gene expression, invasion and chemosensitivity of colon cancer
ABSTRACT: In colorectal cancer, increased expression of the CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) has been shown to provoke metastatic disease due to the interaction with its ligand stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1). Recently, a second SDF-1 receptor, CXCR7, was found to enhance tumor growth in solid tumors. Albeit signaling cascades via SDF-1/CXCR4 have been intensively studied, the significance of the SDF-1/CXCR7-induced intracellular communication triggering malignancy is still only marginally understood. In tumor tissue of 52 colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, we observed that expression of CXCR7 and CXCR4 increased with tumor stage, tumor size, and lymph node infiltration. Asking whether activation of CXCR4 or CXCR7 might result in a similar expression pattern, we performed microarray expression analyses using lentivirally CXCR4- and/or CXCR7-overexpressing SW480 colon cancer cell lines with and without stimulation by SDF-1α. Gene regulation via SDF-1α/CXCR4 and SDF-1α/CXCR7 was completely different and partly antidromic. Expressions of the differentially expressed genes AKR1C3, AXL, EGFR, IGFBP7, IL24, TNNC1, TRIP6 were confirmed by qPCR. Differentially regulated genes were assigned by GO to migration and lipid metabolic processes. Furthermore, using the in silico gene set enrichment analysis we showed for the first time that expressions of miR-217 and miR-218 were increased in CXCR4 and reduced in CXCR7 cells after stimulation with SDF-1α. As expected, their putative target mRNAs were inversely expressed. Functional assays exerted that exposure to SDF-1α resulted in strongly amplified invasiveness and chemosensitivity of CXCR4-expressing cells. CXCR7 overexpression led to reduced invasiveness which could only be marginally increased by SDF-1α. The CXCR4 antagonist plerixafor significantly reduced invasiveness of CXCR4-overexpressing cells only. Similarly, compared to control cells, CXCR4 cells showed increased sensitivity against 5-FU, while CXCR7 cells were more chemoresistant. These opposing results for CXCR4- or CXCR7-overexpressing colon carcinoma cells demand an unexpected attention in the clinical application of chemokine receptor antagonists like Plerixafor. 24 samples
Project description:We have demonstrated that the ?-chemokine stromal-derived factor (SDF)-1-CXCR4 axis plays an important role in rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) metastasis. With the recent description of CXCR7, a new receptor for SDF-1 that also binds the interferon-inducible T-cell ? chemoattractant (ITAC) chemokine, we became interested in the role of the CXCR7-SDF-1/ITAC axis in RMS progression. To address this issue, we evaluated 6 highly metastatic alveolar (A)RMS and 3 less metastatic embryonal (E)RMS cell lines and found that all these cell lines express CXCR7. Although CXCR4 was expressed at a much higher level by highly metastatic ARMS lines, CXCR7 was present at a high level on ERMS lines. We also noticed that CXCR7 expression on RMS cells was downregulated in hypoxic conditions. More importantly, the CXCR7 receptor on RMS cell lines was functional after stimulation with ITAC and SDF-1 as evidenced by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)p42/44 and AKT phosphorylation as well as CXCR7 internalization, chemotaxis, cell motility and adhesion assays. Similarly to CXCR4, signaling from activated CXCR7 was not associated with increased RMS proliferation or cell survival. Moreover, CXCR7(+) RMS cells responded to SDF-1 and I-TAC in the presence of CXCR4 antagonists (T140, AMD3100). Furthermore, while intravenous injection of RMS cells with overexpressed CXCR7 resulted in increased seeding efficiency of tumor cells to bone marrow, CXCR7 downregulation showed the opposite effect. In conclusion, the CXCR7-SDF-1/ITAC axis is involved in the progression of RMS; targeting of the CXCR4-SDF-1 axis alone without simultaneous blockage of CXCR7 will be an inefficient strategy for inhibiting SDF-1-mediated prometastatic responses of RMS cells.
Project description:Stromal cell-derived growth factor (SDF)-1? acts as a ligand to C-X-C chemokine receptors 4 (CXCR4) and 7 (CXCR7), which are involved in the formation of choroidal neovascularization. Previous studies have demonstrated crosstalk between the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB/PDGF receptor (PDGFR)-? and SDF-1?/CXCR4 axes during tumor neovascularization by increasing the recruitment of pericytes. However, the effects of interactions between these two signaling pathways in retinal microvascular pericytes remain poorly understood. Western blotting and reverse transcription-quantitative PCR were used to measure CXCR4 and CXCR7 expression in PDGF-BB-treated pericytes, whilst Cell Counting Kit-8 and Transwell migration assays were used to investigate cell viability and migration following PDGF-BB pretreatment on SDF-1?-treated pericytes. Exogenous PDGF-BB enhanced CXCR4 and CXCR7 expression through PDGFR-? in a dose- and time-dependent manners. In addition, PDGF-BB increased cell viability and migration in SDF-1?-treated pericytes, which were inhibited by AMD3100 and niclosamide, inhibitors for CXCR4 and STAT3 respectively. Crosstalk between PDGF-BB/PDGFR-? and SDF-1?/CXCR4/CXCR7 were involved in the JAK2/STAT3 signaling pathway. PDGF-BB treatment enhanced CXCR4, CXCR7 and PDGFR-?expression, which may be associated with the phosphorylation of STAT3. siRNA-PDGFR-? transfection reduced CXCR4 and CXCR7 expression in pericytes. Therefore, PDGF-BB directly targets PDGFR-? and serves an important role in regulating CXCR4 and CXCR7 expression, ultimately affecting viability and migration in SDF-1?-treated pericytes. Therefore, targeting CXCR4/CXCR7 may serve as a potential therapeutic strategy for fundus diseases.
Project description:Stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) is a chemokine that can be expressed in injured cardiomyocytes after myocardial infarction (MI). By combining with its receptor CXCR4, SDF-1 induced stem and progenitor cells migration. CXCR7, a novel receptor for SDF-1, has been identified recently. We aimed to explore the roles of SDF-1/CXCR4 and SDF-1/CXCR7 pathway and their crosstalk in CSCs migration. In the present study, CXCR4 and CXCR7 expression were identified in CSCs. Transwell assay showed that SDF-1 caused CSCs migration in a dose- and time-dependent manner, which could be significantly suppressed by CXCR4 or CXCR7 siRNA. Phospho-ERK, phospho-Akt and Raf-1 significantly elevated in CSCs with SDF-1 stimulation. Knockdown of CXCR4 or CXCR7 significantly decreased phospho-ERK or phospho-Akt, respectively, and eventually resulted in the inhibition of CSCs migration. Moreover, western blot showed that MK2206 (Akt inhibitor) increased the expression of phospho-ERK and Raf-1, whereas PD98059 (ERK inhibitor) had no effect on phospho-Akt and Raf-1. GW5074 (Raf-1 inhibitor) upregulated the expression of phospho-ERK, but had no effect on phospho-Akt. The present study indicated that SDF-1/CXCR7/Akt and SDF-1/CXCR4/ERK pathway played important roles in CSCs migration. Akt phosphorylation inhibited Raf-1 activity, which in turn dephosphorylated ERK and negatively regulated CSCs migration.
Project description:Our previous studies revealed a pivotal role of the chemokine stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1 and its receptors CXCR4 and CXCR7 on migratory behavior of polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMNs) in pulmonary inflammation. Thereby, the SDF-1-CXCR4/CXCR7-axis was linked with adenosine signaling. However, the role of the SDF-1 receptors CXCR4 and CXCR7 in acute inflammatory peritonitis and peritonitis-related sepsis still remained unknown. The presented study provides new insight on the mechanism of a selective inhibition of CXCR4 (AMD3100) and CXCR7 (CCX771) in two models of peritonitis and peritonitis-related sepsis by injection of zymosan and fecal solution. We observed an increased expression of SDF-1, CXCR4, and CXCR7 in peritoneal tissue and various organs during acute inflammatory peritonitis. Selective inhibition of CXCR4 and CXCR7 reduced PMN accumulation in the peritoneal fluid and infiltration of neutrophils in lung and liver tissue in both models. Both inhibitors had no anti-inflammatory effects in A2B knockout animals (A2B-/-). AMD3100 and CCX771 treatment reduced capillary leakage and increased formation of tight junctions as a marker for microvascular permeability in wild type animals. In contrast, both inhibitors failed to improve capillary leakage in A2B-/- animals, highlighting the impact of the A2B-receptor in SDF-1 mediated signaling. After inflammation, the CXCR4 and CXCR7 antagonist induced an enhanced expression of the protective A2B adenosine receptor and an increased activation of cAMP (cyclic adenosine mono phosphate) response element-binding protein (CREB), as downstream signaling pathway of A2B. The CXCR4- and CXCR7-inhibitor reduced the release of cytokines in wild type animals via decreased intracellular phosphorylation of ERK and NF?B p65. In vitro, CXCR4 and CXCR7 antagonism diminished the chemokine release of human cells and increased cellular integrity by enhancing the expression of tight junctions. These protective effects were linked with functional A2B-receptor signaling, confirming our in vivo data. In conclusion, our study revealed new protective aspects of the pharmacological modulation of the SDF-1-CXCR4/CXCR7-axis during acute peritoneal inflammation in terms of the two hallmarks PMN migration and barrier integrity. Both anti-inflammatory effects were linked with functional adenosine A2B-receptor signaling.
Project description:Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) has been confirmed to participate in the formation of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) via its two receptors: CXC chemokine receptors 4 (CXCR4) and CXCR7. Previous studies have indicated that the activation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) might elevate CXCR4 and/or CXCR7 expression in tumor cells, enhancing the response to SDF-1 to promote invasion and cell dissemination. However, the impact of LPS on the CXCR4 and CXCR7 expression in endothelial cells and subsequent pathological angiogenesis formation remains to be elucidated. The present study shows that LPS enhanced the CXCR4 and CXCR7 expression via activation of the TLR4 pathway in choroid-retinal endothelial (RF/6A) cells. In addition, the transcriptional regulation of CXCR4 and CXCR7 by LPS was found to be mediated by phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) 1/2 and activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) signaling pathways, which were blocked by ERK- or NF-?B-specific inhibitors. Furthermore, the increased CXCR4 and CXCR7 expression resulted in increased SDF-1-induced RF/6A cells proliferation, migration and tube formation. In vivo, LPS-treated rat had significantly higher mRNA levels of CXCR4 and CXCR7 expression and lager laser-induced CNV area than vehicle-treated rat. SDF-1 blockade with a neutralizing antibody attenuated the progression of CNV in LPS-treated rat after a single intravitreal injection. Altogether, these results demonstrated that LPS might influence CNV formation by enhancing CXCR7 and CXCR7 expression in endothelial cells, possibly providing a new perspective for the treatment of CNV-associated diseases.
Project description:We examined the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in targeting the stromal-derived factor 1α/CXCR4 (SDF-1α/CXCR4) axis to overcome chemoresistance of AML cells. Microarray analysis of OCI-AML3 cells revealed that the miRNA let-7a was downregulated by SDF-1α-mediated CXCR4 activation and increased by CXCR4 inhibition. Overexpression of let-7a in AML cell lines was associated with decreased c-Myc and BCL-XL protein expression and enhanced chemosensitivity, both in vitro and in vivo. We identified the transcription factor Yin Yang 1 (YY1) as a link between SDF-1α/CXCR4 signaling and let-7a, as YY1 was upregulated by SDF-1α and downregulated by treatment with a CXCR4 antagonist. ChIP assay confirmed the binding of YY1 to unprocessed let-7a DNA fragments, and treatment with YY1 shRNA increased let-7a expression. In primary human AML samples, high CXCR4 expression was associated with low let-7a levels. Xenografts of primary human AML cells engineered to overexpress let-7a exhibited enhanced sensitivity to cytarabine, resulting in greatly extended survival of immunodeficient mice. Based on these data, we propose that CXCR4 induces chemoresistance by downregulating let-7a to promote YY1-mediated transcriptional activation of MYC and BCLXL in AML cells.
Project description:Chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) and its receptors, CXCR4 and CXCR7, have been implicated in epithelial ovarian cancer progression and metastasis. However, limited data are available on the expression levels of SDF-1 and CXCR4 variants and CXCR7 in human epithelial ovarian cancer. The present study aimed to characterize the expression pattern and levels of SDF-1, CXCR4 and CXCR7 in normal human ovaries and epithelial ovarian cancer. The expression of SDF-1 and CXCR4 transcript variants and CXCR7 was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Plasma SDF-1? levels were determined by commercially available EIA kits and cancer antigen 125 (CA 125) levels were quantified by automated microparticle enzyme immunosorbent assay. High expression levels of SDF-1 transcript variant 1 were identified in ovarian cancer and control ovaries. By contrast, in both groups the expression levels of SDF-1 transcript variants 3 and 4 were extremely low. Furthermore, SDF-1 variant 1 levels were notably higher in epithelial ovarian cancer than in control ovaries, while data for the remaining transcripts were similar in both groups. CXCR4 transcript variant 2 and CXCR7 expression levels in normal and neoplastic ovaries were similar. In both groups, CXCR4 transcript variant 2 was not detected. Plasma SDF-1? levels were notably higher in females with epithelial ovarian cancer than in the control ovaries. Elevated levels of blood SDF-1? were found prior to surgery, 6 days after surgery and following completion of the first chemotherapy course. These increases were independent of the type of epithelial ovarian cancer. Our results suggest that the expression of SDF-1 and the genes controlling alternative splicing are elevated in epithelial ovarian cancer, leading to an increased formation of SDF-1 variant 1. Elevated plasma SDF-1? levels in epithelial ovarian cancer patients are not associated with the presence of tumors and/or metastases, however reflect a general response to the disease.
Project description:The replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) can be profoundly inhibited by the natural ligands of two major HIV-1 coreceptors, CXCR4 and CCR5. Stromal cell-derived factor-1α (SDF-1α) is a natural ligand of CXCR4. We have recently developed a synthetic biology approach of using synthetically and modularly modified (SMM)-chemokines to dissect various aspects of the structure-function relationship of chemokines and their receptors. Here, we used this approach to design novel SMM-SDF-1α analogues containing unnatural N-methylated residues in the amino terminus to investigate whether the polypeptide main chain amide bonds in the N-terminus of SDF-1α play a role in SDF-1α signaling via CXCR4 and/or receptor internalization. The results show that SDF-1α analogues with a modified N-methylated main chain at position 2, 3, or 5 retain significant CXCR4 binding and yet completely lose signaling activities. Furthermore, a representative N-methylated analogue has been shown to be incapable of causing CXCR4 internalization. These results suggest that the ability of SDF-1α to activate CXCR4 signaling and internalization is dependent upon the main chain amide bonds in the N-terminus of SDF-1α. This study demonstrates the feasibility and value of applying a synthetic biology approach to chemically engineer natural proteins and peptide ligands as probes of important biological functions that are not addressed by other biological techniques.
Project description:<b>Background: </b>Some chemokine receptors referred to as atypical chemokine receptors (ACKRs) are thought to non-signaling decoys because of their inability to activate typical G-protein signaling pathways. CXCR7, also known as ACKR3, binds to only two chemokines, SDF-1? and I-TAC, and recruits ?-arrestins. SDF-1? also binds to its own conventional receptor, CXCR4, involving in homeostatic modulation such as development and immune surveillance as well as pathological conditions such as inflammation, ischemia, and cancers. Recently, CXCR7 is suggested as a key therapeutic target together with CXCR4 in such conditions. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying cellular responses and functional relation with CXCR7 and CXCR4 have not been elucidated, despite massive studies. Therefore, we aimed to reveal the molecular networks of CXCR7 and CXCR4 and compare their effects on cell migration.<br><br><b>Methods: </b>Base on structural complementation assay using NanoBiT technology, we characterized the distinct mechanisms underlying ?-arrestin2 recruitment by both CXCR4 and CXCR7. Crosslinking and immunoprecipitation were conducted to analyze complex formation of the receptors. Gene deletion using CRISPR and reconstitution of the receptors were applied to analysis of ligand-dependent ERK phosphorylation and cell migration. All experiments were performed in triplicate and repeated more than three times. Unpaired Student's t-tests or ANOVA using PRISM5 software were employed for statistical analyses.<br><br><b>Results: </b>Ligand binding to CXCR7 does not result in activation of typical signaling pathways via G? subunits but activation of GRK2 via ?? subunits and receptor phosphorylation with subsequent ?-arrestin2 recruitment. In contrast, CXCR4 induced G?<sub>i</sub> activation and recruited ?-arrestin2 through C-terminal phosphorylation by both GRK2 and GRK5. SDF-1?-stimulated ERK phosphorylation was facilitated by CXCR4, but not CXCR7. Heterodimerization of CXCR4 and CXCR7 was not confirmed in this study, while homodimerization of them was verified by crosslinking experiment and NanoBiT assay. Regarding chemotaxis, SDF-1?-stimulated cell migration was mediated by both CXCR4 and CXCR7.<br><br><b>Conclusion: </b>This study demonstrates that SDF-1?-stimulated CXCR7 mediates ?-arrestin2 recruitment via different molecular networking from that of CXCR4. CXCR7 may be neither a simple scavenger nor auxiliary receptor but plays an essential role in cell migration through cooperation with CXCR4.
Project description:CXCR4 and CXCR7 are prominent G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) for chemokine stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1/CXCL12). This study demonstrates that CXCR4 and CXCR7 induce differential effects during cardiac lineage differentiation and ?-adrenergic response in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPSC-CMs). Using lentiviral vectors to ablate CXCR4 and/or CXCR7 expression, hiPSC-CMs were tested for phenotypic and functional properties due to gene knockdown. Gene expression and flow cytometry confirmed the pluripotent and cardiomyocyte phenotype of undifferentiated and differentiated hiPSCs, respectively. Although reduction of CXCR4 and CXCR7 expression resulted in a delayed cardiac phenotype, only knockdown of CXCR4 delayed the spontaneous beating of hiPSC-CMs. Knockdown of CXCR4 and CXCR7 differentially altered calcium transients and ?-adrenergic response in hiPSC-CMs. In engineered cardiac tissues, depletion of CXCR4 or CXCR7 had opposing effects on developed force and chronotropic response to ?-agonists. This work demonstrates distinct roles for the SDF-1/CXCR4 or CXCR7 network in hiPSC-derived ventricular cardiomyocyte specification, maturation and function.