Inducer Free Cellulase Secretion in Neurospora Crassa and comparitive analysis of cellulase induction in Aspergillus nidulans
ABSTRACT: Purpose: To explore conservation of gene regulation by the transcription factor clr-2/clrB in Neurospora crassa and Aspergillus nidulans Methods: mRNA from wild type and clr-2/clrB mutants were collected after a culture shift from sucrose/glucose to Avicel (crystaline cellulose) or no carbon media Results: We show that N. crassa and A. nidulans have similair global transcriptional responses to Avicel, with several hundred genes showing specific induction, though the induced genes are more specifically targeted at cellulose for N. crassa and more targeted at hemicellulose and pectin for A. nidulans. clr-2/clrB has a conserved fundamental function in cellulose induction, though the mechanism has diverged. Misexpression of clr-2 is sufficeint for inducer free cellulase secretion in N. crassa, but neither clrB or heterologous clr-2 is sufficient for inducer free cellulase secretion in A. nidulans. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates a conserved and essential role in cellulose utilization for the transcription factor clr-2 in filamentous ascomycetes and demonstrates that manipulation of clr-2 expression can be used to control cellulase expression in some species. Biological triplicates of liquid culture N. crassa and A. nidulans were harvested at 4 hours and 6 hours, respectively, after a switch to media of interest. Global mRNA abundances from liquid cultures of N. crassa and A. nidulans were measured by sequencing on the Illumina Genome Analyzer IIx and HiSeq2000 platforms.
Project description:Transcriptional profiling with next-generation sequencing methods refined our understanding of the N. crassa transcriptional response to cellulose and demonstrated that the newly characterized transcription factors clr-1 and clr-2 were required for the bulk of that response including induction all major cellulase and some major hemicellulase genes. N. crassa pregrown in Sucrose and transferred to Avicel (cellulose), Sucrose or media with no carbon added. Biological triplicates used to identify differentially expressed genes in WT. Single libraries for mutant strains identify which genes show deficient regulation in response to Avicel. Note: Samples named "cdr1" and "cdr2" correspond to the genes clr-1 and clr-2 respectively.
Project description:Purpose: To explore the function of VIB1 in regulating cellulase production in Neurospora crassa. Method: mRNA from vib-1 mutants were collected after a culture shift from sucrose to Avicel (crystaline cellulose) or carbon-free media. Expression profiles of vib-1 mutants were compared with published profiles of wild type created under the same conditions. Results: We found that many genes that specifically upregulated in wild type upon exposure to Avicel were expressed at low levels in ∆vib-1 and many other genes involved in metabolism and energy were expressed at high levels compared to wild type. Conclusions: Our study shows that VIB1 is required for suppression of glucose response and carbon catabolite repression to allow proper expression of clr-2 and subsequent cellulase production in response to cellulosic induction. Biological triplicates of liquid culture N. crassa were harvested at 4 hours after a switch from sucrose media to media of interest. Global mRNA abundances were measured by sequencing on the Illumina Genome Analyzer Iix and HiSeq2000 platforms.
Project description:Neurospora crassa recently has become a novel system to investigate cellulase induction. Here, we discovered a novel membrane protein, CLP1 (NCU05853), a putative cellodextrin transporter-like protein, that is a critical component of the cellulase induction pathway in N. crassa. Although CLP1 protein cannot transport cellodextrin, the suppression of cellulase induction by this protein was discovered on both cellobiose and Avicel. The co-disruption of the cellodextrin transporters cdt2 and clp1 in strain Δ3βG formed strain CPL7. With induction by cellobiose, cellulase production was enhanced 6.9-fold in CPL7 compared with Δ3βG. We also showed that the suppression of cellulase expression by CLP1 occurred by repressing the expression of cellodextrin transporters, particularly cdt1 expression. Transcriptome analysis of the hypercellulase-producing strain CPL7 showed that the cellulase expression machinery was dramatically stimulated, as were the cellulase enzyme genes including the inducer transporters and the major transcriptional regulators. N. crassa was pregrown in sucrose and transferred to cellobiose media. Up regulated and down regulated genes expressions were compared with Δ3βG and Δ3βGΔclp1 strain.
Project description:CDT-1 and CDT-2 are two cellodextrin transporters discovered in the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa. Previous studies focused on characterizing the role of these transporters in only a few conditions, including cellulose degradation, and the function of these two transporters is not yet completely understood. In this study, we show that deletion of cdt-2, but not cdt-1, results in growth defects not only on Avicel but also on xylan. cdt-2 can be highly induced by xylan, and this mutant has a xylodextrin consumption defect. Transcriptomic analysis of the cdt-2 deletion strain on Avicel and xylan showed that major cellulase and hemicellulase genes were significantly down-regulated in the cdt-2 deletion strain and artificial over expression of cdt-2 in N. crassa increased cellulase and hemicellulase production. Together, these data clearly show that CDT-2 plays a critical role in hemicellulose sensing and utilization. This is the first time a sugar transporter has been assigned a function in the hemicellulose degradation pathway. Furthermore, we found that the transcription factor XLR-1 is the major regulator of cdt-2, while cdt-1 is primarily regulated by CLR-1. These results deepen our understanding of the functions of both cellodextrin transporters, particularly for CDT-2. Our study also provides novel insight into the mechanisms for hemicellulose sensing and utilization in N. crassa, and may be applicable to other cellulolytic filamentous fungi. N. crassa was pregrown in Sucrose and transferred to Avicel (cellulose) or Xylan(hemicellulose) media. Up regulated and down regulated genes expressions were compared with wild type strain on two conditions (Avicel and xylan) respectively.
Project description:Identifying nutrients available in the environment and utilizing them in the most efficient manner is a challenge common to all organisms. The model filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa is capable of utilizing a variety of carbohydrates, from simple sugars to the complex carbohydrates found in plant cell walls. The zinc binuclear cluster transcription factor CLR-1 is necessary for utilization of cellulose, a major, recalcitrant component of the plant cell wall; however, expression of clr-1 in the absence of an inducer is not sufficient to induce cellulase gene expression. We performed a screen for unidentified actors in the cellulose-response pathway and identified a gene encoding a hypothetical protein (clr-3) that is required for repression of CLR-1 activity in the absence of an inducer. Using clr-3 mutants, we implicated the hyperosmotic-response pathway in the tunable regulation of glycosyl hydrolase production in response to changes in osmolarity. The role of the hyperosmotic-response pathway in nutrient sensing may indicate that cells use osmolarity as a proxy for the presence of free sugar in their environment. These signaling pathways form a nutrient-sensing network that allows N. crassa cells to tightly regulate gene expression in response to environmental conditions. Overall design: mRNA profiles of wild type and mutant N. crassa cells exposed to carbon starvation and cellulose. There are 14 different strains and conditions each done in biological triplicate, which includes wild type controls for a total of 42 samples.
Project description:The ascomycete Trichoderma reesei is an industrial producer of cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic enzymes and also serves as a model for investigations on these enzymes and their genes. Most of them are obligatorily dependent on the Zn(II)Cys(VI) transcriptional activator XYR1. XYR1 is constitutively expressed at a low basal, but induced in the presence of cellulase- and hemicellulose inducers, and transported into the nucleus. The factors mediating its import and export across the nuclear pore complexes (karyopherins) are therefore expected to play a key role in its function. We identified 14 karyopherins in T. reesei, of which 8 were predicted to be involved nuclear protein import. Their systematic knock-out and testing for cellulase formation identified KAP8 (an orthologue of A. nidulans KapI, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Kap121/Pse1p) to be essential for cellulase gene expression, and for the appearance of GFP-XYR1 in the nucleus. Transcriptomic analysis of Δkap8 and a retransformant under cellulase-inducing conditions revealed the downregulation of 64 Cazymes in the Δkap8 strain under inducing conditions, including all cellulases and hemicellulases known to be under XYR1 control, and of 12 transcription factors of which 2 were known to be associated with cellulase regulation (ACE3, CLR2). Together, these new observations underscore the role of nuclear transport of XYR1 in the regulation of cellulase and hemicellulose gene expression in T. reesei, and identify KAP8 as the major karyopherin involved in this process. Two strains were used: T. reesei ku70 (pyr4-), in which the kap8 (=kapI/Pse1/Kap121) reading frame has been replaced by the T. reesei pyr4 gene; and a kap8-retransformant of the same strain and two time points for each strain T0h and T3h. All samples are in tricplicate.
Project description:Light represents an important environmental cue, which exerts considerable influence on the metabolism of fungi. Studies with the biotechnological fungal workhorse Trichoderma reesei (Hypocrea jecorina) have revealed an interconnection between transcriptional regulation of cellulolytic enyzmes and the light response. The filamentous fungus, Neurospora crassa, has been used as a model organism to study light and circadian rhythm biology. We therefore investigated whether light also regulates transcriptional regulation of cellulolytic enzymes in N. crassa. We show that the N. crassa photoreceptor genes wc-1, wc-2 and vvd are involved in regulation of cellulase gene expression, indicating that this phenomenon is conserved among filamentous fungi. Genome wide analysis of photoreceptor mutants and evaluation of results by analysis of mutant strains identified several candidate genes likely to play a role in light modulated cellulase gene expression. Three deletion strains (delta-wc-1 (FGSC 11712), delta-wc-2 (FGSC 11124) and delta-vvd (FGSC 11556)) and the wild type strain (FGSC 2489) at two different timepoints (28h or 40h) were analyzed. Cy3 and Cy5 dye swaps were performed.
Project description:Hemicellulose, the second most abundant plant biomass fraction after cellulose, is widely viewed as a potential feedstock for the production of liquid fuels and other value-added materials. Degradation of hemicellulose by filamentous fungi requires production of many different enzymes, which are induced by biopolymers or its derivatives and regulated mainly at the transcriptional level through transcription factors (TFs). Neurospora crassa has been shown to express and secrete plant cell wall associated enzymes. To better understand genes specifically associated with degradation of hemicellulose, we identified 353 genes by transcriptome analysis of N. crassa wild type strain grown on beechwood xylan. Exposure to xylan induces 9 of the 19 predicted hemicellulase genes. The xylanolytic phenotype of strains with deletions in genes identified from the secretome and transcriptome analysis of wild type showed that none were essential for growth on beechwood xylan. The transcription factor XlnR/Xyr1 in Aspergillus and Trichoderma species is considered to be the major transcriptional regulator of genes encoding both cellulases and hemicellulases. We identified a xlnR/xyr1 homolog in N. crassa, NCU06971, termed xlr-1 (xylanase regulator 1). Deletion of xlr-1 in N. crassa abolishes the growth on xylan and xylose, but growth on cellulose was indistinguishable from wild type. To determine regulatory mechanisms associated with hemicellulose degradation, we explored the transcriptional regulon of XLR-1 under xylose and xylanolytic versus cellulolytic conditions. XLR-1 regulated only some predicted hemicellulase genes in N. crassa and was required for a full induction of several cellulase genes. Hemicellulase gene expression was induced by a combination of release from carbon catabolite repression (CCR) and induction. However, in N. crassa, xlr-1 is subject to non-CRE-1 mediated CCR. This systematic analysis provides the similarities and differences of hemicellulose degradation and regulation mechanisms used by N. crassa in comparison to other filamentous fungi. Four-condition experiments (minimal medium, xylan medium,xylose and Avicel medium) of mutant strain(xlr-1) compared to wild type strain; Cy3 and Cy5 dye swap
Project description:CDT-1 and CDT-2 are two cellodextrin transporters discovered in the filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa. Previous studies focused on characterizing the role of these transporters in only a few conditions, including cellulose degradation, and the function of these two transporters is not yet completely understood. In this study, we show that deletion of cdt-2, but not cdt-1, results in growth defects not only on Avicel but also on xylan. cdt-2 can be highly induced by xylan, and this mutant has a xylodextrin consumption defect. Transcriptomic analysis of the cdt-2 deletion strain on Avicel and xylan showed that major cellulase and hemicellulase genes were significantly down-regulated in the cdt-2 deletion strain and artificial over expression of cdt-2 in N. crassa increased cellulase and hemicellulase production. Together, these data clearly show that CDT-2 plays a critical role in hemicellulose sensing and utilization. This is the first time a sugar transporter has been assigned a function in the hemicellulose degradation pathway. Furthermore, we found that the transcription factor XLR-1 is the major regulator of cdt-2, while cdt-1 is primarily regulated by CLR-1. These results deepen our understanding of the functions of both cellodextrin transporters, particularly for CDT-2. Our study also provides novel insight into the mechanisms for hemicellulose sensing and utilization in N. crassa, and may be applicable to other cellulolytic filamentous fungi. Overall design: N. crassa was pregrown in Sucrose and transferred to Avicel (cellulose) or Xylan(hemicellulose) media. Up regulated and down regulated genes expressions were compared with wild type strain on two conditions (Avicel and xylan) respectively.
Project description:abstract: The plant cell wall is composed of many complex polymers, and its deconstruction requires an equally complex orchestration of a wide array of enzymes. In Neurospora crassa, clr-1, clr-2 and xlr-1 have been identified as the key transcription factors involved in cell wall breakdown. In order to define their regulons, we performed ChIPseq upon these three transcription factors. CLR-1, CLR-2 and XLR-1 each bind to the most highly and differentially expressed gene populations, which include the cellulases for the CLRs and the hemicellulases for XLR-1. CLR-1 also bound to its regulon under non-inducing conditions; however, this did not translate into gene expression. Motif analysis of the bound genes revealed conserved DNA binding motifs, with the CLR-2 motif matching that of its closest yeast homolog, GAL4. Co-immunoprecipitation studies were able to show that CLR-1 and CLR-2 act as homodimers. Finally, we report on a conserved XLR-1 point mutation that is sufficient to drive hemicellulase expression under non-inducing conditions. Understanding how these transcription factors work in concert to break down plant biomass can inform decisions on how to best engineer future fungal strains for decreased enzyme costs. RNAseq and ChIPseq was performed upon knockout mutants and wild type strains growing on various carbon sources to determin the role of the transcription factors CLR-1, CLR-2, and XLR-1 in plant cell wall degradation