Molecular responses in skeletal muscles following spinal cord injury and the effect of locomotor training
ABSTRACT: Spinal cord injury (SCI) is one of the most disabling health problems facing adults today. Locomotor training has been shown to induce substantial recovery in muscle size and muscle function in both transected and contusion injury animal models of SCI. The overall objective of this study is to implement genome wide expression profiling of skeletal muscle to define the molecular pathways associated with muscle remodeling after SCI and during locomotor training (TM). We profiled rat soleus of total 36 samples including controls; 3, 8 and 14 days after SCI; 8 and 14 days after SCI with locomotor treadmill training (TM).
Project description:Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) often leads to loss of locomotor function. Neuroplasticity of spinal circuitry underlies some functional recovery and therefore represents a therapeutic target to improve locomotor function following SCI. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms mediating neuroplasticity below the lesion level are not fully understood. The present study performed a gene expression profiling in the rat lumbar spinal cord at 1 and 3 weeks after contusive SCI at T9. The below-level gene expression profiles were compared with those of animals that were subjected to treadmill locomotor training. Rat lumbar spinal cords were taken for the microarray analysis at 1 and 3 weeks after contusive spinal cord injury at the T9 level. Another group of rats received treadmill locomotor training for 3 weeks, and theirs spinal cords were harvested for the microarray. The changes in gene expression after spinal cord injury were analyzed at the two time points. The influence of treadmill locomotor training was evaluated by comparing gene expression profiles between animals with or without treadmill training.
Project description:Following spinal cord injury, skeletal muscle loss is rapid. This severe atrophy is attributed to declines in protein synthesis and increases in protein breakdown. However, the signaling mechanisms controlling these changes are not well understood. Nine male patients and one female patient with spinal cord injury (SCI) (Mean ± SEM = 43.9 ± 6.7 yrs) were recruited for this study. Six patients were quadriplegics and four patients were paraplegics. Inclusion criteria were as follows: patients above the age of 18 yrs, absence of severe brain injury (Glasgow Coma Scale > 13), absence of muscle-crush injury or compartment syndrome, absence of all of the following conditions: hypoxic injury, systemic sepsis, systemic inflammatory or autoimmune disease, and malignancy. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscles of the SCI patients two days and five days post-SCI. Biopsies collected two days post-SCI were included in the current analysis. Expression changes were measured by microarray and gene clustering; identification of enriched functions and canonical pathways were performed using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA). Functional analysis found that 48h following SCI expression, gene expression changes were related to decreases in metabolic functions such as the tricarboxylic acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation as well as increases in functions associated with protein degradation such as proteasome activity and ubiquitination. Furthermore, increases in expression of metallothioneins were found to be the most over-represented functional group in the DAVID analysis. Results from this study showed that functional categories of gene expression changes in human skeletal muscle are consistent with previous findings in animals. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscles of the SCI patients two days and five days post-SCI. (N = 10). A 5mm Berstrom biopsy needle was used. Biopsy samples were immediately snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen upon excision. All samples were stored at -80° C until analysis.
Project description:T cells undergo autoimmunization following spinal cord injury (SCI) and play both protective and destructive roles during the recovery process. T-cell deficient athymic nude (AN) rats recover better than immunocompetent Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats following spinal cord transection. In the present study, we evaluated locomotor recovery in SD and AN rats following moderate spinal cord contusion. To explain variable locomotor outcome, we assessed whole-genome expression using RNA sequencing, in the acute (1 week post-injury) and chronic (8 weeks post-injury) phases of recovery. AN rats demonstrated greater locomotor function than SD rats only at 1 week post-injury, coinciding with peak T cell infiltration in immunocompetent rats. Genetic markers for T cells and helper T cells were acutely enriched in SD rats, while AN rats expressed genes for Th2 cells, cytotoxic T cells, NK cells, mast cells, IL-1a, and IL-6 at higher levels. Acute enrichment of cell death-related genes suggested that SD rats undergo secondary tissue damage from T cells. Additionally, SD rats exhibited increased acute expression of voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channel-related genes. However, AN rats demonstrated greater chronic expression of cell death-associated genes and less expression of axon-related genes. We put forth a model in which T cells facilitate early tissue damage, demyelination, and Kv channel dysregulation in SD rats following contusion SCI. However, compensatory features of the immune response in AN rats cause delayed tissue death and limit long-term recovery. T cell inhibition combined with other neuroprotective treatment may thus be a promising therapeutic avenue. 2x2 model with 4 groups and 12 total samples. 2 rat strains (athymic nude [AN] and Sprague-Dawley [SD]) and 2 time points (1 week post-injury [acute] and 8 weeks post-injury [chronic]). 3 samples per group, for a total of 12 samples. No technical replicates were performed. Acute SD group = rats 618, 619, and 620. Chronic SD group = rats 605, 606, and 608. Acute AN group = rats 714, 715, and 717. Chronic AN group = rats 707, 712, and 713.
Project description:Spinal cord injury (SCI) represents a major debilitating health issue with a direct socioeconomic burden on the public and private sectors worldwide. Although several studies have been conducted to identify the molecular progression of injury sequel due from the lesion site, still the exact underlying mechanisms and pathways of injury development have not been fully elucidated. In this work, based on OMICs, 3D MALDI imaging, cytokines arrays, confocal imaging we established for the first time that molecular and cellular processes occurring after spinal cord injury (SCI) are altered between the lesion proximity, i.e., rostral and caudal segments nearby the lesion (R1-C1) whereas segments distant from R1-C1, i.e., R2-C2 and R3-C3 levels co-expressed factors implicated in neurogenesis. Delay in T regulators recruitment between R1 and C1 favor discrepancies between the two segments. This is also reinforced by presence of neurites outgrowth inhibitors in C1, absent in R1. Moreover, the presence of immunoglobulins (IgGs) in neurons at the lesion site at 3 days, validated by mass spectrometry, may present additional factor that contributes to limited regeneration. Treatment in vivo with anti-CD20 one hour after SCI did not improve locomotor function and IgG expression. These results open the door of a novel view of the SCI treatment by considering the C1 as the therapeutic target.
Project description:Spinal cord injury (SCI) often leads to persistent functional deficits due to severe neuron and glial loss, and to limited axonal regeneration after injury. Here we show that the transplantation of human dental stem cells into the completely transected adult rat spinal cord resulted in a significant recovery of hindlimb locomotor functions. These stem cells exhibited three major neuro-regenerative activities. First, they inhibited the SCI-induced apoptosis of neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes, improving the preservation of neuronal filaments and myelin sheaths. Second, they promoted the regeneration of transected axons by directly inhibiting multiple axon growth inhibitors, including chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan and myelin-associated glycoprotein, by paracrine mechanisms. Third, they replaced lost cells by differentiating into mature oligodendrocytes under the extreme conditions of SCI. Our data demonstrate that tooth-derived stem cells may provide novel therapeutic benefits for treating SCI through both cell-autonomous and paracrine neuro-regenerative activities. Human dental stem cells were isolated from exfoliated deciduous teeth extracted for clinical purposes were collected at Nagoya University School of Medicine, under approved guidelines set by Nagoya University (H-73, 2003). The ethics committee of Nagoya University approved the experimental protocols (permission number 8-2). Mesenchymal stem cells of human Bone marrow line were obtained from Lonza. Total RNAs were isolated and quantified by spectrophotometer. RNA integrity was checked on 1% agarose gels. RT reactions were carried out with Superscript III reverse transcriptase (Invitrogen) using 1 μg of total RNA in a 50 μl total reaction volume. Microarray experiments were carried out using a CodeLink™ Human Whole Genome Bioarray (Applied Microarrays, Inc. Tempe, AZ) at Filgen, Inc. (Nagoya, Japan). The arrays were scanned using a GenePix4000B Array Scanner (Molecular Devices, Sunnyvale, CA), and the data was analyzed by using MicroArray Data Analysis Tool Ver3.2 (Filgen, Inc.).
Project description:Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes severe bone loss and disrupts connections between higher centers in the central nervous system (CNS) and bone. Muscle contraction elicited by functional electrical stimulation (FES) partially protects against loss of bone but cellular and molecular events by which this occurs are unknown. Here, using a rat model, we characterized effects of 7 days of contraction-induced loading of tibia and fibula due to FES when begun 16 weeks after SCI. SCI reduced tibial and femoral BMD by 12-17% and promoted bone resorption, as indicated by increased serum CTX; SCI-related changes in CTX were reversed by FES. In cultures of bone marrow cell-derived cells, SCI increased the number of osteoclasts and mRNA levels of the several osteoclast differentiation markers; these changes were significantly reversed by FES. The number of osteoblasts was also reduced by SCI as was the ratio of OPG/RANKL mRNAs therein; the unfavorable change in OPG/RANKL ratio was partially reversed by FES. cDNA microarray analysis revealed that alterations in genes involved in signaling through Wnt, FSH/LH, PTH and calcineurin/NFAT pathways may be linked to the favorable action of FES on SCI-induced bone resorption. In particular, SCI increased levels of the Wnt inhibitors DKK1, sFRP2 and SOST in osteoblasts, These effects were completely or partially reversed by FES. Our results demonstrate an anti-bone resorptive activity of acute FES in bone loss after SCI and suggest potential underlying mechanisms, among them involving increased Wnt signaling to cause more favorable ratios of OPG and RANKL for the inhibition of osteoclastogenesis. The present study indicates that the effects of bone reloading on SCI- related bone remodeling occurred independently of the effects of higher CNS centers on bone. Implantation of the FES microstimulators was performed 14 weeks after SCI. The FES was begun during the 16th week following spinal cord transection. Stimulation was provided for 60 minutes on each training day and consisted of brief periods of contraction (2 seconds) at 40 Hz at 1.5 V with longer periods of rest (18 seconds). Animals received FES on 7 consecutive days; collection of blood and tissues occurred at day at after initiating FES, as described below. The SCI-Sham FES animals received the implant surgery and gastrocnemius ablation during the 14th week after the spinal cord transection, but did not have a stimulator unit inserted; samples were collected from these animals at week 17. To provide age-matched non-SCI controls, additional animals underwent a sham-SCI surgery identical to that for the SCI animals, except that the spinal cord was not transected. Tissues were collected from these animals at 12-14 weeks after surgery. Of note, at this age, animals were sexually mature and their growth minimal. To collect blood and tissues, animals were anesthetized by inhalation of isofluorane followed by removal of the soleus and plantaris muscles after careful dissection and collection of blood by ventricular puncture and aspiration. Animals were euthanized by aortic transaction and tibia and femur were removed as a single piece, leaving the knee joint intact, and placed in a-MEM for isolation of bone marrow cells. Muscles were weighed; weights are expressed after being normalized to body weight before SCI or sham-SCI surgeries to control for individual variations in size.
Project description:We asked what genes are significantly differentially regulated in the spinal cord of SCI trkB.T1 WT and trkB.T1 KO mice. TrkB.T1 is upregulated shortly after SCI although the precise mechanisms underyling this upregulation are poorly understood. In the trkB.T1 null, we show less mechanical allodynia and better locomotor recovery following SCI. The microarray studies helped us to elucidate a signaling pathway that is differently regulated in the WT versus KO mice at 1 day after SCI. In this study, we did not examine gene changes within a genotype after SCI. Rather, we examined DGE by genotype at each time point. Spinal cord tissue from WT and KO mice in a sham condition (intact spinal cord) versus 1D, 3D and 7D following SCI was harvested for microarray analyses.
Project description:The aim of the study was to investigate whether environmental factors like S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) via affecting epigenome could alter cocaine-induced gene expression and locomotor sensitization in mice. Using mouse nucleus accumbens (NAc) tissue, whole-genome gene expression profiling revealed that repeated SAM treatment affected a limited number of genes, but significantly modified cocaine-induced gene expression by blunting nonspecifically the cocaine response. At the gene level, we discovered that SAM modulated cocaine-induced DNA methylation by inhibiting both promoter-associated CpG-island hyper- and hypomethylation in the NAc but not in the reference tissue cerebellum. Total RNA was extracted from the mouse nucleus accumbens (NAc) tissue. Two tissues were combined to a sample, 4 samples per group used. RNA quality and quantity were assessed using the Nano-Drop -1000 spectrophotometer and the Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer.
Project description:Spinal cord injury (SCI) represents a major debilitating health issue with a direct socioeconomic burden on the public and private sectors worldwide. Although several studies have been conducted to identify the molecular progression of injury sequel due from the lesion site, still the exact underlying mechanisms and pathways of injury development have not been fully elucidated. In this work, based on OMICs, 3D matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) imaging, cytokines arrays, confocal imaging we established for the first time that molecular and cellular processes occurring after SCI are altered between the lesion proximity, i.e., rostral and caudal segments nearby the lesion (R1-C1) whereas segments distant from R1-C1, i.e., R2-C2 and R3-C3 levels co-expressed factors implicated in neurogenesis. Delay in T regulators recruitment between R1 and C1 favor discrepancies between the two segments. This is also reinforced by presence of neurites outgrowth inhibitors in C1, absent in R1. Moreover, the presence of immunoglobulins (IgGs) in neurons at the lesion site at 3 days, validated by mass spectrometry, may present additional factor that contributes to limited regeneration. Treatment in vivo with anti-CD20 one hour after SCI did not improve locomotor function and decrease IgG expression. These results open the door of a novel view of the SCI treatment by considering the C1 as the therapeutic target.
Project description:The study of male infertility after spinal cord injury (SCI) has enhanced the understanding of seminal plasma (SP) as an important regulator of spermatozoa function. However, the most important factors leading to the diminished sperm motility and viability observed in semen of men with SCI remained unknown. Thus, to explore SP related molecular mechanisms underlying infertility after SCI we used mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics to compare SP retrieved from SCI patients to normal controls. As a result, we present an in-depth characterization of the human SP proteome, identifying ~2,800 unique proteins, and describe, in detail, the differential proteome observed in SCI. Our analysis demonstrates that a hyper-activation of the immune system may influence some seminal processes, which probably are not triggered by microbial infection. Moreover, we show evidence of an important prostate gland functional failure, i.e. diminished abundance of metabolic enzymes related to ATP turnover, secreted via prostasomes and identify the main outcome related to this fact and that it is intrinsically linked to the low sperm motility in SCI. Together, our data suggest the molecular pathways hindering fertility in SCI and shed new light on other causes of male infertility.