Sox4 is a master regulator of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by controlling Ezh2 expression and epigenetic reprogramming
ABSTRACT: Gene expression profiling has uncovered the transcription factor Sox4 with up-regulated activity during TGFβ-induced EMT in normal and cancerous breast epithelial cells. Sox4 is indispensable for EMT and cell survival in vitro and for primary tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. Among several EMT-relevant genes, Sox4 directly regulates the expression of Ezh2, encoding the Polycomb group histone methyltransferase that trimethylates histone 3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3) for gene repression. Ablation of Ezh2 expression prevents EMT, while forced expression of Ezh2 restores EMT in Sox4-deficient cells. Ezh2-mediated H3K27me3 marks associate with key EMT genes, representing an epigenetic EMT signature that predicts patient survival. Our results identify Sox4 as a master regulator of EMT by governing the expression of the epigenetic modifier Ezh2. Our Dataset comprises of 12 ChIP-seq samples using chromatin from NMuMG cells which was immunoprecipitated using H3K27me3-specific antibody during TGFβ-induced EMT (2ng/ml) at 6 different stages (day 0, 1, 4, 7, 10, 20).
Gene expression profiling has uncovered the transcription factor Sox4 with upregulated activity during TGF-β-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in normal and cancerous breast epithelial cells. Sox4 is indispensable for EMT and cell survival in vitro and for primary tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. Among several EMT-relevant genes, Sox4 directly regulates the expression of Ezh2, encoding the Polycomb group histone methyltransferase that trimethylates histone 3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3 ...[more]
Project description:Expression profiling after Sox4 knockdown (KD) during epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) in NMuMG reveals a significant number of genes that are transcriptionally deregulated. Gene expression profiling is performed in Sox4-ablated (siSox4) NMuMG cells. Cells transfected with siControl is used as a control. The cells were either treated with transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ; 2ng/ml) or not.
Project description:Expression profiling after Klf4 KD during EMT in NMuMG reveals a significant number of genes that are transcriptionally deregulated Gene expression profiling is performed in Klf4 ablated (siKlf4) NMuMG cells. Cells transfected with siControl is used as a control. The cells were either treated with TGFβ (2ng/ml) or not.
Project description:Cellular changes during an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) largely rely on global changes in gene expression orchestrated by transcription factors. Tead transcription factors and their co-factors Yap and Taz have been shown to be implicated in EMT, nevertheless, their direct and indirect target genes during EMT have remained elusive. We used microarrays to detail the changes in global programme of gene expression during TGFβ-induced EMT in a murine breast cancer cell line (Py2T). We compared expression profiles of treated Py2T breast cancer cell lines (5 days of TGFβ treatment 2ng/ml) to profiles of untreated cells, we used 2 biological replicates for each condition.
Project description:Cellular changes during an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) largely rely on global changes in gene expression orchestrated by transcription factors. Tead transcription factors and their co-factors Yap and Taz have been shown to be implicated in EMT, nevertheless, their direct target genes during EMT have remained elusive.We used genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation and next generation sequencing to identify diect Tead2 target genes during EMT. Py2T cells (murine breast cancer cell line) were treated with TGFβ for 5 days and subjected to ChIP using an antibody for Tead2 followed by next generation sequencing (Illumina HiSeq 2000; n=2)
Project description:NMuMG is an epithelial cell line that can be induced into EMT by TGF-β treatment or MET by TGF-β withdrawl. During EMT, several marker genes were downregulated/upregulated, which is consistent with its mesenchymal phenotype. Transcription factors that are regulated during EMT and its reverse process MET are candidate genes for the regulations of the EMT marker genes. NMuMG cells treated with vehicle, TGF-β for 11 days, or 11days of TGF-β treatment followed by TGF-β withdrawl for another 13 days. RNA from these 3 conditions of NMuMG were extracted and subject to microarray analysis
Project description:Overexpression of EZH2 in estrogen receptor negative (ER-) breast cancer promotes metastasis. EZH2 has been mainly studied as the catalytic component of the Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) that mediates gene repression by trimethylating histone H3 at lysine 27 (H3K27me3). However, how EZH2 drives metastasis despite the low H3K27me3 levels observed in ER- breast cancer is unknown. We have shown that in human invasive carcinomas and distant metastases, cytoplasmic EZH2 phosphorylated at T367 is significantly associated with ER- disease and low H3K27me3 levels. Here, we explore the interactome of EZH2 and of a phosphodeficient mutant EZH2_T367A. We identified novel interactors of EZH2, and identified interactions that are dependent on the phosphorylation and cellular localization of EZH2 that may play a role in EZH2 dependent metastatic progression.
Project description:Congenital heart disease is among the most frequent major birth defects. Epigenetic marks are crucial for organogenesis, but their role in heart development is poorly understood. Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) trimethylates histone H3 at lysine 27, establishing H3K27me3 repressive epigenetic marks that promote tissue-specific differentiation by silencing ectopic gene programs. We studied the function of the catalytic subunit of PRC2, EZH2, in murine heart development. Early EZH2 inactivation by Nkx2-5Cre caused lethal congenital heart malformations, but slightly later EZH2 inactivation by cTNT-Cre did not. To study how the cardiomyocytes gene expression program is properly established in the early heart development, we combined the technologies of RNA sequencing and chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing to identify the functional target genes directly repressed by EZH2. Intriguingly, these were enriched for transcriptional regulators of non-cardiac expression programs, such as transcription factors that regulate neuronal (Pax6) and cardiac progenitor genes (Isl1 and Six1). EZH2 was also required to maintain spatiotemporal regulation of cardiac gene expression, as Hcn4, Mlc2a, and Bmp10 were inappropriately upregulated in ventricular RNA. Furthermore, EZH2 was required for normal cardiomyocyte proliferation, establishing H3K27me3 epigenetic marks at cell cycle inhibitors Ink4a/b and repressing their expression. Our study reveals a previously undescribed role of EZH2 in regulating heart formation and shows that perturbation of the epigenetic landscape early cardiogenesis has sustained disruptive effects at later developmental stages. 8 E12.5 heart apex were used for RNA preparation each group.
Project description:Purpose: to characterize epigenetic changes following Twist1 mediated Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in human Methods: we characterized the epigenetic and transcriptome landscapes using whole genome transcriptome analysis by RNA-seq, DNA methylation by digital restriction enzyme analysis of methylation (DREAM) and histone modifications by CHIP-seq of H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 in immortalized human mammary epithelial cells relative to cells induced to undergo EMT by Twist1. Results: EMT is accompanied by focal hypermethylation and widespread global DNA hypomethylation, predominantly within transcriptionally repressed gene bodies. At the chromatin level, the number of gene promoters marked by H3K4me3 increases by more than one fifth; H3K27me3 undergoes dynamic genomic redistribution characterized by loss at half of gene promoters and overall reduction of peak size by almost one-half. This is paralleled by increased phosphorylation of EZH2 at serine 21. Among genes with highly altered mRNA expression, 23.1% switch between H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 marks, and those point to the master EMT targets and regulators CDH1, PDGFRA and ESRP1. Strikingly, Twist1 increases the number of bivalent genes by more than two fold. Inhibition of the H3K27 methyltransferases EZH2 and EZH1, which form part of the PRC2 complex, results in blocking EMT and stemness properties. Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that the EMT program requires epigenetic remodeling by the Polycomb/Trithorax complexes leading to increased cellular plasticity which suggests that its inhibition will prevent EMT, and the associated breast cancer metastasis. RNAseq profiles of human mammary epithelial cells before (HMLE_parental) and after Twist1 transfection (HMLE_Twist) were generated in monolayer (HMLE_Twist2D) and sphere culture by deep sequencing using SOLID
Project description:The prion protein (PrP) evolved from the subbranch of ZIP metal ion transporters comprising ZIPs 5, 6 and 10, raising the prospect that the study of these ZIPs may reveal insights relevant for understanding PrP function. PrP and ZIP6 are required for the execution of a cellular program known as epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Polysialylation of neural cell adhesion molecule 1 (NCAM1) during EMT is also controlled by PrP. Here we report the ZIP6 interactome and ZIP6-dependent NCAM1 interactome in a mouse cell EMT model.