Maternal folic acid supplementation alters gene expression in the offspring brain
ABSTRACT: Studies have indicated that altered maternal micronutrients and vitamins influence the development and susceptibility of newborns to chronic diseases. Among these, folic acid (FA) plays a key role in the synthesis and repair of DNA, along with maintenance of epigenetic DNA methylation. Deficiency of FA has been associated with the pathogenesis of neural tube defects. Since FA can modulate DNA methylation and affect gene expression, we investigated the effect of gestational FA supplementation on the expression of genes in the offspring brain. Our results suggest that a maternal ten-fold increase in FA supplementation alters the expression and dysregulates a number of genes in the offspring brain, including many involved in development. While a number of genes that were dysregulated were common to both male and female pups, there were sex differences in gene expression changes. C57BL/6J female mice were separated into two groups of ten mice and supplemented with a custom diet. One week prior to mating the low-dose group of female mice were fed a custom AIN-93G amino acid–based diet (Research Diet, Inc. New-Brunswick, NJ), with FA at 0.4 mg/kg, while the high-dose group received FA at 4 mg/kg diet. Tissues from the cerebral hemisphere of three independent pups of same gender were pooled together. A total of three microarray gene expression studies have been performed (0.4mg/kg or 4mg/kg both male and female) and the mean was used for comparison.
Project description:Maternal vitamins and micronutrients during gestational periods have profound impact on the developmemt of newborns as well as influence susceptibility to chronic conditions. Folic acid is indicated to women during pregnancies to prevent occurrence of neural tube defects in infants. Recently, evidence is emerging of the epigenetic effects of folic acid. Since epigenetic changes are crucial in developing fetus, we investigated the effect of maternal higher folic acid supplementation on the gene expression in offspring brains to identify if brain development may be affected. Our results revealed that maternal exposure of higher dose FA diet during gestation dysregulates expression of several genes in the cerebellum of both male and female pups. Dysregulated genes included several transcriptional factors, imprinted genes, neurodevelopmental genes and genes associated with autism spectrum disorder. Adult, 8- to 10-week-old C57BL/6J mice were used in all the experiments and handled according to the protocol reviewed and approved by the Institute for Basic Research Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. One week prior to mating and throughout the pregnancy two groups of female mice were fed with custom AIN-93G amino acid–based diet (Research Diet, Inc. New-Brunswick, NJ), which contained folic acid (FA) at 2mg/kg and 20 mg/kg diet. At postnatal day one (P1), from FA at 2 mg/kg group: male pups’ n=3 and female pups’ n=3 were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and cerebellum tissues were collected. From FA at 20 mg/kg group: male pups’ n=6 and female pups n=6 were similarly processed. All tissues were snapped frozen and stored at -80°C until downstream analysis was performed.
Project description:Maternal vitamins and micronutrients during gestational periods have profound impact on the developmemt of newborns as well as influence susceptibility to chronic conditions. Folic acid is indicated to women during pregnancies to prevent occurrence of neural tube defects in infants. Recently, evidence is emerging of the epigenetic effects of folic acid. Since epigenetic changes are crucial in developing fetus, we investigated the effect of maternal higher folic acid supplementation on the gene expression in offspring brains to identify if brain development may be affected. Our results revealed that maternal exposure of higher dose FA diet during gestation dysregulates expression of several genes in the cerebellum of both male and female pups. Dysregulated genes included several transcriptional factors, imprinted genes, neurodevelopmental genes and genes associated with autism spectrum disorder. Overall design: Adult, 8- to 10-week-old C57BL/6J mice were used in all the experiments and handled according to the protocol reviewed and approved by the Institute for Basic Research Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. One week prior to mating and throughout the pregnancy two groups of female mice were fed with custom AIN-93G amino acid–based diet (Research Diet, Inc. New-Brunswick, NJ), which contained folic acid (FA) at 2mg/kg and 20 mg/kg diet. At postnatal day one (P1), from FA at 2 mg/kg group: male pups’ n=3 and female pups’ n=3 were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and cerebellum tissues were collected. From FA at 20 mg/kg group: male pups’ n=6 and female pups n=6 were similarly processed. All tissues were snapped frozen and stored at -80°C until downstream analysis was performed.
Project description:Gestational protein restriction is a model for low birth size. We hypothesized that taurine supplementation would protect against changes in newborn liver and muscle caused by a maternal low protein diet. Pregnant mouse dams were subjected to different diet schemes from day 1 of pregnancy until birth. Pups were killed following birth and liver and hindleg skeletal muscle taken out and frozen at -80C until analysis. Diet schemes: Normal Protein (20% casein; NP), Normal Protein + taurine (1% taurine supplementation in water ad libitum; NP+tau), Low Protein (8% casein; LP) and LP+tau The liver and muscle samples were normalized separately.
Project description:Vitamin A (retinol) is an essential precursor for the production of retinoic acid (RA), which in turn is a major regulator of gene expression, affecting cell differentiation throughout the body. Understanding how vitamin A nutritional status, as well as therapeutic retinoid treatment, regulates the expression of retinoid homeostatic genes is important for improving dietary recommendations and therapeutic strategies using retinoids. This study investigated genes central to processes of retinoid uptake and storage, release to plasma, and oxidation in the liver of rats under steady-state conditions after different exposures to dietary vitamin A (deficient, marginal, adequate and supplemented), and acutely after administration of a therapeutic dose of all-trans-RA. Over a very wide range of dietary vitamin A, lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT) as well as multiple cytochrome P450s (CYP26A1, CYP26B1, and CYP2C22) differed by diet and were highly correlated with one another and with vitamin A status assessed by liver retinol concentration (all correlations, P<0.05). After acute treatment with RA, the same genes were rapidly and concomitantly induced, preceding RARß, a classical direct target of RA. CYP26A1 mRNA exhibited the greatest dynamic range (change of log26 in 3 h). Moreover, CYP26A1 increased more rapidly in the liver of RA-primed rats than naïve rats. By in situ hybridization, CYP26A1 mRNA was strongly regulated within hepatocytes, closely resembling RBP4 in location. Overall, whether RA is produced endogenously from retinol or administered exogenously, changes in retinoid homeostatic gene expression simultaneously favor both retinol esterification and RA oxidation, with CYP26A1 exhibiting the greatest dynamic change. All rats were housed in a room maintained at 22°C with a 12-h dark:light cycle, and food and water were freely available. For the Steady-State Vitamin A Study (experiment 1) and the Retinoic Acid 16-hour Kinetic Study (experiment 2), lactating female Sprague-Dawley rats with 12 female pups (purchased from Charles River Laboratories, Willmington, MA) were fed a vitamin A-deficient purified diet [AIN-93G diet, prepared by Research Diets, New Brunswick, NJ] to reduce the transfer of vitamin A in milk from mother to pups prior to the start of the study. For experiment 1, from weaning, the offspring were fed the same diet modified to contain vitamin A at one of four levels: 0 (vitamin A deficient), 0.4 mg retinol/kg diet (vitamin A marginal), 4 mg retinol/kg diet (vitamin A adequate control), or 100 mg retinol/kg diet (vitamin A supplemented). All rats were studied at 8 weeks of age. Rats were euthanized by carbon dioxide asphyxiation and blood and liver were collected rapidly and frozen in liquid nitrogen for storage at -80°C before analysis. In experiment 2, at 8 weeks of age female vitamin A-deficient rats were treated with ~100 ug of All-trans-Retinoic acid (at-RA) for 0 (vehicle only), 3, 6, 10 or 16 h (n=3-4/group). Tissues were collected and RNA was prepared in the same manner as in experiment 1. In the 90-minute "first pass" kinetic study (experiment 3), female rats were purchased at 6 weeks of age and fed a stock rodent diet. When the rats were 8 weeks old they were assigned to a control (naïve) group. Rats in the naive group received an equal amount of vehicle only (vegetable oil/5% ethanol). Food was removed immediately. Sixteen hours after priming, each rat was lightly anesthetized by isoflurane-oxygen inhalation and treated with ~25 ug all-trans-RA bound to albumin [10 ug RA per 100 g bo dy weight], injected into the exposed left common iliac vein. The incision was closed with a surgical staple. The rats were allowed to recover from the anesthesia. Rats were killed at 0 minute (vehicle injection), and 30, 60, and 90 min (n = 3/group) after injection of the RA test dose. Rats were euthanized by carbon dioxide asphyxiation and blood and liver were collected rapidly and frozen in liquid nitrogen for storage at -80°C before analysis. For experiment 1, five biological repeats were Vitamin A deficient, seven biological repeats were Vitamin A marginal, six biological repeats were Vitamin A adequate, and two biological repeats were Vitamin A supplemented. In experiment 2, three biological repeats were performed for each of the following treatments: untreated, at-RA for 3 hours, at-RA for 6 hours and at-RA for 16 hours. Four biological repeats were treated with at-RA for 10 hours. For experiment 3, two biological repeats were untreated and three biological repeats were performed for each of the following at-RA treatment times: 30, 60 and 90 minutes. A total of 47 samples were analyzed.
Project description:The present study aimed to examine the effect of high-fat diet prior to pregnancy on the liver of mouse offspring. Female C57BL/6J mice were fed a normal chow (15.2% fat by energy) (CTR and CTR-PP groups) or a high-fat chow (31.2% fat by energy) (HFD and HFD-PP groups) for 3−4 weeks and then mated with male C57BL/6J mice fed normal chow. Some mothers continued on the same diet until pups reached 21 days of age (CTR and HFD), and others were fed the different chows from gestational day 0 (CTR-PP and HFD-PP) to determine the effects of a high-fat diet during the pre-pregnancy period in HFD-PP/CTR and HFD/CTR-PP comparisons. RNA sample was taken from liver of 3-week-old mouse prenatally received high-fat diet prior to pregnancy, during pregnancy and lactation, or through prior to and during pregnancy and lactation, while control RNA was taken from control counterpart prenatally received normal diet alone. Comparisons among groups were made by one-color method with normalized data from Cy3 channels for data analysis.
Project description:Liver gene transcripts patterns were used to characterize toxicity from exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), flame retardant components. In this study, Wistar Han dams were exposed by gavage to the PBDE mixture (DE71) starting at gestation day 6 (GD 6) and continuing to weaning on postnatal day 21 (PND 21). Offspring from the dams began PBDE direct dosing on PND 12 and were dosed daily through PND 21. After weaning, they were dosed 5 days per week for another 13 weeks. Liver samples were collected at PND 22 and week 13 for liver gene expression analysis and interrogated with the Affymetrix Rat Genome 230 2.0 Array. PBDE treatment induced 1,066 liver gene transcript changes in females and 1,200 transcriptional changes in males at PND 22 (false discovery rate (FDR) < 0.01), but only 263 liver transcriptional changes at 13 weeks in male rats (FDR <0.05). No significant differences in dose response were found between male and female pups. There were a total of 6 groups and 5x replication for each group, for 30 total samples that were analyzed. The groups were (1) pup-male-CTL, (2) pup-female-CTL, (3) pup-male-PBDE, (4) pup-female-PBDE, (5) rat-male-CTL, (6) rat-male-PBDE. We generated the following pairwise comparisons using R/maanova: malePups(PBDE vs CTL), femalePups(PBDE vs CTL), maleRats(PBDE vs CTL), CTLpups(male vs female), PBDEpups(male vs female). We also performed ANOVA test for SEX-by-DOSE (pups) and AGE-by-DOSE (males). For pups, genes with an FDR≤1% were selected; for rats, genes with FDR < 5% were selected.
Project description:Background: This study examines the impact of dietary fatty acids on regulation of gene expression in the mammary epithelial cells before and during puberty. Methods: The diets primarily consisted of n-9 monounsaturated fatty acids (olive oil), n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (safflower), saturated acids (butter), and the reference AIN-93G diet (soy oil). The dietary regimen mimics the repetitive nature of fatty acid exposure in Western diets. Dietary-induced changes in gene expression were examined in the LCM (Laser Capture Microdissected) captured mammary ductal epithelial cells at day of weaning (21 days) and at the end of puberty (50 days after birth). PCNA immunohistochemistry analysis was used to compare proliferation rates between diets. Results: Genes differentially expressed between each of the test diets and the reference diet in both age groups were significantly enriched by cell cycle genes. Some of these genes were involved in the activation of the cell cycle pathway or the G2/M check point pathway. Although there were some differences in the level of differential expression, all diets showed qualitatively same pattern of differential expression compared to the reference diet. Cluster analysis identified an expanded set of cell cycle as well as immunity and sterol metabolism related clusters of differentially expressed genes. Conclusion: Fatty acid-enriched diets significantly up-regulated proliferation above the normal physiological level at day 50. The higher cellular proliferation during puberty caused by enriched fatty acid diets pose a potential increase risk of mammary cancer in later life. The human homologs of 27 of 62 cell cycle cluster of rat genes are included in a human breast cancer cluster of 45 cell cycle related genes further emphasizing the importance of our findings in the rat model. Female, virgin Spraque-Dawley rats were obtained from Taconic Farms (Germantown, NY) at approximately 7 weeks of age and placed on one of 9 pelleted purified diets for one month. After one month of diet exposure, female rats were bred with male Sprague-Dawley rats of approximately 3 months of age. Litters were weighed and monitored throughout gestational period. Pups had access to dam’s milk as well as tap water and food throughout gestation. Pups were weaned at DOL 21 and individually housed with tap water and diets ad libitum. Rats were killed by CO2 asphyxiation and decapitated at the following two ages, DOW (DOL21) and DOL 50 with no other treatments.
Project description:Selenium (Se) is an essential cofactor of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase beside other functions. The evaluation of optimal selenium supplementation in chicken feed and the subsequent effects on animal health and performance requires comprehensive knowledge of the overall metabolic effects of selenium. Therefore the gene expression was measured in the control group with a standard diet and in the group with a Se supplemented diet (0.5mg Se/kg diet) to determine significantly altered gene expression. The selenium was supplemented in the form of selenized yeast (Se-yeast), which mainly consists of organic Se in the form of L-selenomethionine and L-selenocysteine. The control group received a diet, which contained 70μg of Se / kg diet and the Se-yeast group 620μg of Se / kg diet (analyzed). The one-day old broiler chicks were separated into two groups and received the control or the Se-supplemented diet ad libitum for 35 days. After slaughter the gene expression was determined in the liver of four control and five samples from the Se-yeast group. One sample from the control group did not correspond to the quality requirements and was excluded from the analysis.
Project description:Maternal diet is associated with the development of metabolism-related and other non-communicable diseases in offspring. Underlying mechanisms, functional profiles, and molecular markers are only starting to be revealed. Here, we explored the physiological and molecular impact of maternal Western-style diet on the liver of male and female offspring. C57BL/6 dams were exposed to either a low fat/low cholesterol diet (LFD) or a Western-style high fat/high cholesterol diet (WSD) for six weeks before mating, as well as during gestation and lactation. Dams and offspring were sacrificed at postnatal day 14, and body, liver, and blood parameters were assessed. The impact of maternal WSD on the pups' liver gene expression was characterised by whole-transcriptome microarray analysis. Exclusively male offspring had significantly higher body weight upon maternal WSD. In offspring of both sexes of WSD dams, liver and blood parameters, as well as hepatic gene expression profiles were changed. In total, 686 and 604 genes were differentially expressed in liver (p≤0.01) of males and females, respectively. Only 10% of these significantly changed genes overlapped in both sexes. In males, in particular alterations of gene expression with respect to developmental functions and processes were observed, such as Wnt/beta-catenin signalling. In females, mainly genes important for lipid metabolism, including cholesterol synthesis, were changed. We conclude that maternal WSD affects physiological parameters and induces substantial changes in the molecular profile of the liver in two-week-old pups. Remarkably, the observed biological responses of the offspring reveal pronounced sex-specificity. C57BL/6 dams were exposed to either a low fat/low cholesterol diet (LFD) or a Western-style high fat/high cholesterol diet (WSD) as six weeks pre-treatment before mating, as well as during gestation and lactation. Offspring were sacrificed at postnatal week two, livers were removed and RNA samples were subjected to gene expression profiling.
Project description:Fetal asphyctic (FA) preconditioning is effective in attenuating brain damage incurred by a subsequent perinatal asphyctic insult. Unraveling mechanisms of this endogenous neuroprotection, activated by FA preconditioning, is an important step towards new clinical strategies for asphyctic neonates. Genomic reprogramming is thought to be, at least in part, responsible for the protective effect of preconditioning. Therefore, we investigated whole genome differential expression in the preconditioned rat brain. FA preconditioning was induced on embryonic day 17 (E17) by reversibly clamping the uterine circulation. Perinatal asphyxia (PA) was induced while pups were being born by caesarean section; the uterine horns, including pups, were placed in a water bath for 19 minutes. FAPA pups underwent both procedures. Control (C) pups did not undergo FA or PA procedures, but were born by caesarean section. Pups were sacrificed at 3 time-points: 96 hours after FA (E21), 6 hours after birth/PA (P0), and 96 hours after birth/PA (P4).