Lung injury induced by common bile duct ligation in mice
ABSTRACT: Liver dysfunction and cirrhosis affect vasculature in several organ systems and cause impairment of organ functions, thereby increasing morbidity and mortality. If a mouse model of hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) could be established, greater insight into the genetic basis of the disease would be gained. Our objectives were to establish a mouse model of lung injury after common bile duct ligation (CBDL) and to investigate pulmonary pathogenesis for application in future therapeutic approaches. Balb/c mice were subjected to CBDL. Immunohistochemical analyses and real-time quantitative reverse transcriptional polymerase chain reaction were performed on pulmonary tissues. The presence of HPS markers were detected by western blot and microarray analyses. We observed extensive proliferation of CD31-positive pulmonary vascular endothelial cells 2 weeks after CBDL, and identified 11 up-regulated and 8 down-regulated proteins that were associated with angiogenesis. MMP-9 protein was highly expressed at 3 weeks after CBDL, and less expressed in lungs of the control group. Contrary to our expectation, lung pathology in our mouse model exhibited differences from that of rat models, and the mechanisms responsible for these differences are unknown. This phenomenon may be explained by contrasting processes related to TNF induction of angiogenic signaling pathways in the inflammatory phase; thus, we suggest that our mouse model can be applied to pulmonary pathological analyses in the inflammatory phase, i.e., to systemic inflammatory response syndrome, acute lung injury, and MOD syndrome. After induction of anesthesia, a median abdominal incision was made and the common bile duct was identified. The duct was dissected carefully under a microscope, and doubly ligated with 7-0 Prolene and transected. In the sham operation (control) group, the duct was dissected without common bile duct ligation. Mice were sacrificed at 2 and 3 weeks after surgery. CD31-positive cells were assembled from three mice in each group.
Project description:We analyzed via microarray gene expression profiles from patients with familial pulmonary fibrosis and HPS-1 pulmonary fibrosis collected under IRB-approved protocols. Overall design: Microarray gene expression profiles in de-identified, clinically annotated samples from ficoll purified peripheral blood samples from patients with familial pulmonary fibrosis and HPS-1 pulmonary fibrosis collected under IRB-approved protocols.
Project description:Early postnatal life is considered as a critical time window for determination of long-term metabolic states and organ functions. Extrauterine growth restriction (EUGR) causes the development of adult onset chronic diseases, including pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). However, the effects of nutritional disadvantages during early postnatal period on pulmonary vascular consequences in later life are not fully understood. Our study was designed to test whether epigentic dysregulation mediates the cellular memory of this early postnatal event. To test this hypothesis, we isolated pulmonary vascular endothelial cells (PVEC) by magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS) from EUGR and control rats. A postnatal insult, nutritional restriction-induced EUGR caused development of an increased pulmonary artery pressure at 9-week of age in male rats. MeDIP-chip (Methyl-DNA immune precipitation chip), genome-scale mapping studies to search for differentially methylated loci between control and EUGR rats revealed significant difference in cytosine methylation between EUGR and control rats. We validated candidate dysregulated loci with quantitative assays of cytosine methylation and gene expressions. EUGR changes cytosine methylation at ~500 loci in male rats at 9 weeks of age, preceding the development of PAH and these represent candidate loci for mediating the pathogenesis of pulmonary vascular disease that occurs later in life. These results demonstrate that epigenetic dysregulation is a strong mechanism for propagating the cellular memory of early postnatal events, causing changes in expression of genes and long term susceptibility to PAH, and further providing a new insight into prevention and treatment of EUGR-related PAH. MeDIP together with microarray analysis demonstrated that significant differences in cytosine methylation between EUGR and control rats. Comparison of EUGR(n=3) vs Control (n=3) male rats' pulmonary vascular endothelial cells in 9-week age old rats
Project description:RNA-Sequencing was performed on mechanically dissociated, epithelial-enriched samples, of human extrahepatic biliary tissue from Gallbladder, Common Bile Duct, and Pancreatic Duct tissues. Sequencing was also performed on in vitro cultures of Organoid cell lines at passage 5 that were derived from human Gallbladder, Common Bile Duct, Pancreatic Duct, or Intrahepatic Bile Ducts.
Project description:Genome wide DNA methylation profiling of normal and tumor bile duct samples. The Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip was used to obtain DNA methylation profiles across approximately 450,000 CpGs in 138 tumor bile duct samples and 4 normal bile duct samples. Overall design: Bisulphite converted DNA from the 142 samples were hybridised to the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip
Project description:The near-normalization of constitutive cytokine and matrix release following rescue by HPS1 transduction of HPM cells suggests that HPS-1 HuMCs may contribute to pulmonary fibrosis and constitute a target for therapeutic intervention. Microarray analysis of HPS-1 HuMCs and non-transduced HPM cells confirmed upregulation of differentially expressed genes involved in fibrogenesis and degranulation. Six HPS-1 patients and five healthy controls were studied following informed consent. One typical HPS-1 HuMC culture at 5-6 weeks was eventually overgrown by a population of smaller, rapidly dividing cells. Analysis of differential gene expression from 8 wk old control and HPS-1 HuMCs and HPM cells was performed using cDNA generated from cultured cells.
Project description:Haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are derived early from embryonic precursor cells, such as haemogenic endothelial cells and pre-HSCs. However, the identity of precursor cells remains elusive due to their rareness, transience, and inability to be isolated efficiently. Here we employed potent surface markers to capture the nascent pre-HSCs at 30% purity, as rigorously validated by single-cell-initiated serial transplantation assay. Then we applied single-cell RNA-Seq technique to analyse five populations closely related to HSC formation: endothelial cells, CD45- and CD45+ pre-HSCs in E11 aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region, and mature HSCs in E12 and E14 foetal liver. In comparison, the pre-HSCs showed unique features in transcriptional machinery, apoptosis, metabolism state, signalling pathway, transcription factor network, and lncRNA expression pattern. Among signalling pathways enriched in pre-HSCs, the mTOR activation was uncovered indispensable for the emergence of HSCs but not haematopoietic progenitors from endothelial cells in vivo. By comparing with proximal populations without HSC potential, the core molecular signature of pre-HSCs was identified. Collectively, our work paves the way for dissection of complex molecular mechanisms regulating the step-wise generation of HSCs in vivo, informing future efforts to engineer HSCs for clinical application. RNA-Seq of 181 single-cell samples from 8 FACS sorted cell types: 1. endothelial cells (samples E11.0_EC_xxxx. CD31+ VE-cadherin+CD41-CD43-CD45-Ter119-); 2. T1 pre-HSCs (samples E11.0_T1_xxxx. CD31+CD45-CD41low c-Kit+CD201high); 3. T1 CD201- cells (samples E11.0_T1CD201neg_xxxx, CD31+CD45-CD41low c-Kit+CD201low/-) ; 4. T2 pre-HSCs (samples E11.0_T2_35xx. CD31+CD45+c-Kit+CD201high), 5. T2 CD41low (samples E11.0_T2_21xx, E11.0_T2_24xx and E11.0_T2_27xx. CD31+CD45+CD41low); 6. E12 HSCs (samples E12.5_FL_xxxx. Lin-Sca-1+Mac-1lowCD201+); 7. E14 HSCs (samples E14.5_FL_xxxx. CD45+CD150+CD48-CD201+); 8. Adult HSCs (samples Adult_HSC_xxxx. CD45+CD150+CD48-CD201+). ECs, T1 pre-HSCs, T1 CD201- cells, T2 pre-HSCs, T2 CD41low cells were sorted from E11 AGM region. Mature HSCs were sorted from E12 or E14 fetal liver and adult bonemarrow.
Project description:Assays in bile duct cancer patients showed 984 CNVs in 306 CNV regions (CNVR) distributed throughout all 22 chromosomes. Bile duct cancer patients had a mean of 21.8 gains and 19.2 losses of genes, with an average of 35.9 CNVRs per patient. Frequent sites of gains were at chromosomes 22q11.22, 2p11.2-p.11.1, 14q32.33 and 17q12, whereas frequent sites of losses were at 19q12-q13.43. Investigation of CNV in 24 bile duct cancer tissue samples
Project description:Endothelial cell (EC) dysfunction plays a key role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). To avoid cell cultures and whole lung tissue samples, we have, for the first time, used CD31 antibody coated magnetic beads in conjunction with genome scale RNA expression microarrays to profile ECs in vivo at any stage of PAH. We hypothesized that targeting early stages of the disease would identify novel mediators of PAH and genes linked to bone morphogenetic protein receptor 2 (BMPR2) signaling. Rats were treated with either monocrotaline (60mg/kg) or saline as control with 4 animals in each experimental group. Gene expression profiling was performed on primary pulmonary endothelial cells directly after isolation from whole lung tissue 5 days after treatment.
Project description:Disordered angiogenesis is implicated in the pulmonary vascular remodeling secondary to congenital heart disease (CHD). However, the underlying genes are not well delineated. We have previously shown that an ovine model of CHD with increased pulmonary blood flow (PBF, Shunt) has an “angiogenesis burst” between 1-4 weeks of age. Thus, we hypothesized that the increased pulmonary blood flow elicited a pro-angiogenic gene expression profile prior to the onset of vessel growth. To test this we utilized microarray analysis to identify genes that could be responsible for the angiogenic response. Total RNA was isolated from the lungs of Shunt and Control lambs at 3 days of age and hybridized to Affymetrix GeneChips for microarray analyses (n=8 for each group). A total of 89 angiogenesis-related genes were found to be up-regulated and 26 angiogenesis-related genes down-regulated in Shunt lungs compared to control (cutting at 1.2 fold difference, P<0.05). We then confirmed the up-regulation of pro-angiogenic genes: FGF2, Angiopoietin2 (Angpt2), and Birc5 at both mRNA and protein levels and the up-regulation of ccl2 at mRNA level in the 3-day shunt lungs. Further, we found that pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (PAEC) isolated from juvenile lambs exhibited increased expression of FGF2, Angpt2, Birc5, and ccl2 as well as enhanced angiogenesis when exposed to elevated shear stress (35 dyn/cm2) compared to cells exposed to more physiological level shear stress (20 dyn/cm2). Finally, we demonstrated that blocking FGF2, Angpt2, or Birc 5 signaling, using neutralizing antibodies, significantly decreased the angiogenic response induced by shear stress. In conclusion, we have identified a pro-angiogenic gene expression profile in a lamb model of CHD with increased PBF that precedes the onset of pulmonary vascular remodeling. Further, our data indicate that FGF2, Angiopoietin2, Birc5, and ccl2 may play important roles in the angiogenic response. Total RNA was isolated from the lungs of Shunt and Control lambs at 3 days of age and hybridized to Affymetrix GeneChips for microarray analyses. Eight chips were employed for both control and shunt groups.
Project description:We microprepared native mammary skin resections from healthy female donors (breast size reduction) by a combination of enzymatic and mechanical treatment. The resulting suspensions of single dermal cells were then subjected to FACSorting using antibodies against the lymphovascular marker protein podoplanin and the panendothelial protein CD31 as positive and the leukocytic protein CD45 as negative markers. We aimed at separating lymphatic vascular endothelial cells (LECs) from blood vascular endothelial cells (BECs) in order to characterize their moelcular and functional phenotypes in health and disease. We found that lymphatic endothelial cells consisted of two instead of only one cell population. Their discrimination marker was high versus low expression of podoplanin surface protein, respectively. Especially, the low-podoplanin expressors were undescribed. Thus, we screened for their transcription profile using U133A. We identified specific marker genes and finally have assigned a specific function to the novel LEC subpopulation unknown up to now. Importantly, we did not use lysates from cell culture, but from ex vivo cells. Thus, there was no treatment of cells except processing the samples on ice.