Dietary cholesterol supplementation to a plant-based diet for Atlantic salmon
ABSTRACT: The study evaluated effects of dietary cholesterol (1.5%) in Atlantic salmon fed a plant based diet for 77 days. Cholesterol supplementation did not affect growth or organ weights of Atlantic salmon, but promoted induction of cholesterol and plant sterol efflux in the intestine, whereas sterol uptake was suppressed. Microarray analyses in the liver indicated decreased cholesterol biosynthesis and enhanced conversion to bile acids. The marked effect of cholesterol on bile acid synthesis suggests that dietary cholesterol can be used to stimulate bile acid synthesis in fish. The study clearly demonstrated how Atlantic salmon adjusted metabolic functions in response to the dietary load of cholesterol, and has expanded our understanding of sterol metabolism and turnover that adds to the knowledge of these processes in fish. Atlantic salmon received feeds based on plant ingredients with (CH) and without (K) supplementation of cholesterol. Liver samples were collected after 77 days. Five individuals from each group were analyzed with microarrays, pooled liver sample of salmon fed with commerical fish meal based feed was used as a reference.
Project description:Screening has revealed that modern-day feeds used in Atlantic salmon aquaculture might contain trace amounts of agricultural pesticides. To reach slaughter size, salmon are produced in open net pens in the sea. Uneaten feed pellets and undigested feces deposited beneath the net pens represent a source of contamination for marine organisms. To examine the impacts of long-term and continuous dietary exposure to an organophosphorus pesticide found in Atlantic salmon feed, we fed juvenile Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), an abundant species around North Atlantic fish farms, three concentrations (0.5, 4.2, and 23.2 mg/kg) of chlorpyrifos-methyl (CPM) for 30 days. Endpoints included liver and bile bioaccumulation, liver transcriptomics and metabolomics, as well as plasma cholinesterase activity, cortisol, liver 7-ethoxyresor-ufin-O-deethylase activity, and hypoxia tolerance. The results show that Atlantic cod can accumulate relatively high levels of CPM in liver after continuous exposure, which is then metabolized and excreted via the bile. All three exposure concentrations lead to significant inhibition of plasma cholinesterase activity, the primary target of CPM. Transcriptomics profiling pointed to effects on cholesterol and steroid biosynthesis. Metabolite profiling revealed that CPM induced responses reflecting detoxification by glutathione-S-transferase, inhibition of monoacylglycerol lipase, potential inhibition of carboxylesterase, and increased demand for ATP, followed by secondary inflammatory responses. A gradual hypoxia challenge test showed that all groups of exposed fish were less tolerant to low oxygen saturation than the controls. In conclusion, this study suggests that wild fish continuously feeding on leftover pellets near fish farms over time may be vulnerable to organophosphorus pesticides.
Project description:Microalgae, as primary producers of EPA and DHA, are among the most prominent alternative sources to fish oil for n-3 long-chain PUFA in animal and human nutrition. The present study aimed to assess technical, nutritional and fish health aspects of producing n-3-rich Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fish fillets by dietary supplementation of increasing levels of a DHA-producing Schizochytrium sp. and reduced or without use of supplemental fish oil. Atlantic salmon smolt were fed diets with graded levels of microalgae for 12 weeks, during which all fish showed high feed intake rates with postprandial plasma leptin levels inversely correlating with final mean fish body weights. Fish performance was optimal in all experimental treatments (thermal growth coefficient about 4·0 and feed conversion ratio 0·8-0·9), protein digestibility was equal in all diets, whereas dietary lipid digestibility inversely correlated with the dietary levels of the SFA 16 : 0. Fillet quality was good and similar to the control in all treatments in terms of n-3 long-chain PUFA content, gaping, texture and liquid losses during thawing. Histological fluorescence staining and immunofluorescence analysis of salmon intestines (midgut: base of intestine and villi) revealed significant effects on slime, goblet cell production and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) activity with increasing levels of dietary Schizochytrium sp. supplementation. Microarray analysis did not reveal any signs of toxicity, stress, inflammation or any other negative effects from Schizochytrium sp. supplementation in diets for Atlantic salmon.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Various intestinal morphological alterations have been reported in cultured fish fed diets with high contents of plant ingredients. Since 2000, salmon farmers have reported symptoms indicating an intestinal problem, which we suggest calling lipid malabsorption syndrome (LMS), characterized by pale and foamy appearance of the enterocytes of the pyloric caeca, the result of lipid accumulation. The objective of the present study was to investigate if insufficient dietary choline may be a key component in development of the LMS. RESULTS:The results showed that Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), average weight 362?g, fed a plant based diet for 79?days developed signs of LMS. In fish fed a similar diet supplemented with 0.4% choline chloride no signs of LMS were seen. The relative weight of the pyloric caeca was 40% lower, reflecting 65% less triacylglycerol content and histologically normal gut mucosa. Choline supplementation further increased specific fish growth by 18%. The concomitant alterations in intestinal gene expression related to phosphatidylcholine synthesis (chk and pcyt1a), cholesterol transport (abcg5 and npc1l1), lipid metabolism and transport (mgat2a and fabp2) and lipoprotein formation (apoA1 and apoAIV) confirmed the importance of choline in lipid turnover in the intestine and its ability to prevent LMS. Another important observation was the apparent correlation between plin2 expression and degree of enterocyte hyper-vacuolation observed in the current study, which suggests that plin2 may serve as a marker for intestinal lipid accumulation and steatosis in fish. Future research should be conducted to strengthen the knowledge of choline's critical role in lipid transport, phospholipid synthesis and lipoprotein secretion to improve formulations of plant based diets for larger fish and to prevent LMS. CONCLUSIONS:Choline prevents excessive lipid accumulation in the proximal intestine and is essential for Atlantic salmon in seawater.
Project description:The effects of feeding an 80% plant protein diet, with and without fish protein hydrolysate (FPH) supplementation, on the growth and gut health of Atlantic salmon were investigated. Fish were fed either (A) a control diet containing 35% fishmeal, (B) an 80% plant protein diet with 15% fishmeal, (C) an 80% plant protein diet with 5% fishmeal and 10% partly hydrolysed protein, or (D) an 80% plant protein diet with 5% fishmeal and 10% soluble protein hydrolysate. Fish on the 80% plant- 15% fishmeal diet were significantly smaller than fish in the other dietary groups. However, partly-hydrolysed protein supplementation allowed fish to grow as well as fish fed the control 35% fishmeal diet. Fish fed the FPH diets (diets C and D) had significantly higher levels of amino acids in their blood, including 48% and 27% more branched chain amino acids compared to fish on the 35% fishmeal diet, respectively. Plant protein significantly altered gut microbial composition, significantly decreasing ?-diversity. Spirochaetes and the families Moritellaceae, Psychromonadaceae, Helicobacteraceae and Bacteroidaceae were all found at significantly lower abundances in the groups fed 80% plant protein diets compared to the control fishmeal diet.
Project description:The shift from marine to plant-based ingredients in fish feeds affects the dietary concentrations and bioavailability of micronutrients, amino acids and lipids and consequently warrants a re-evaluation of dietary nutrient recommendations. In the present study, an Atlantic salmon diet high in plant ingredients was supplemented with graded levels of nutrient premix (NP), containing selected amino acids, taurine, cholesterol, vitamins and minerals. This article presents the results on the antioxidant nutrients vitamin C, E and selenium (Se), and effects on tissue redox status. The feed ingredients appeared to contain sufficient levels of vitamin E and Se to cover the requirements to prevent clinical deficiency symptoms. The body levels of ?-tocopherol (TOH) in parr and that of Se in parr and post-smolt showed a linear relationship with dietary concentration, while ?-TOH in post-smolt seemed to be saturable with a breakpoint near 140 mg kg-1. Ascorbic acid (Asc) concentration in the basal feed was below the expected minimum requirement, but the experimental period was probably too short for the fish to develop visible deficiency symptoms. Asc was saturable in both parr and post-smolt whole body at dietary concentrations of 190 and 63-89 mg kg-1, respectively. Maximum whole body Asc concentration was approximately 40 mg kg-1 in parr and 14 mg kg-1 in post-smolt. Retention ranged from 41 to 10% in parr and from -206 to 12% in post-smolt with increasing NP supplementation. This indicates that the post-smolts had an extraordinarily high consumption of Asc. Analyses of glutathione (GSH) and glutathione disulphide (GSSG) concentrations and the calculated GSH based redox potentials in liver and muscle tissue, indicated only minor effects of diets on redox regulation. However, the post-smolt were more oxidized than the parr. This was supported by the high consumption of Asc and high expression of gpx1 and gpx3 in liver. Based on the present trials, the recommendations for supplementation of vitamin C and E in diets for Atlantic salmon are similar to current practices, e.g. 150 mg kg-1 of ?-TOH and 190 mg kg-1 Asc which was the saturating concentration in parr. Higher concentrations than what would prevent clinical deficiency symptoms are necessary to protect fish against incidents of oxidative stress and to improve immune and stress responses. There were no indications that the Se requirement exceeded the current recommendation of 0.3 mg kg-1.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Cardiomyopathy syndrome (CMS) is a severe cardiac disease of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) recently associated with a double-stranded RNA virus, Piscine Myocarditis Virus (PMCV). The disease has been diagnosed in 75-85 farms in Norway each year over the last decade resulting in annual economic losses estimated at up to €9 million. Recently, we demonstrated that functional feeds led to a milder inflammatory response and reduced severity of heart lesions in salmon experimentally infected with Atlantic salmon reovirus, the causal agent of heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI). In the present study we employed a similar strategy to investigate the effects of functional feeds, with reduced lipid content and increased eicosapentaenoic acid levels, in controlling CMS in salmon after experimental infection with PMCV. RESULTS: Hepatic steatosis associated with CMS was significantly reduced over the time course of the infection in fish fed the functional feeds. Significant differences in immune and inflammatory responses and pathology in heart tissue were found in fish fed the different dietary treatments over the course of the infection. Specifically, fish fed the functional feeds showed a milder and delayed inflammatory response and, consequently, less severity of heart lesions at earlier and later stages after infection with PMCV. Decreasing levels of phosphatidylinositol in cell membranes combined with the increased expression of genes related with T-cell signalling pathways revealed new interactions between dietary lipid composition and the immune response in fish during viral infection. Dietary histidine supplementation did not significantly affect immune responses or levels of heart lesions. CONCLUSIONS: Combined with the previous findings on HSMI, the results of the present study highlight the potential role of clinical nutrition in controlling inflammatory diseases in Atlantic salmon. In particular, dietary lipid content and fatty acid composition may have important immune-modulatory effects in Atlantic salmon that could be potentially beneficial in fish balancing the immune and tissue responses to viral infections.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Dependence on marine natural resources threatens the sustainability of Atlantic salmon aquaculture. In the present study, Atlantic salmon fed for 14 weeks with an experimental diet based on animal by-products and vegetable oil (ABP) exhibited reduced growth performance compared with others fed a fish meal/fish oil based experimental diet (MAR) and a plant protein/vegetable oil-based experimental diet (VEG). To characterize the molecular changes underlying the differences in growth performance, we conducted a 44 K microarray study of the liver transcriptome of the three dietary groups. RESULTS:The microarray experiment identified 122 differentially expressed features (Rank Products, PFP?<?10%). Based on their associated Gene Ontology terms, 46 probes were classified as metabolic and growth-relevant genes, 25 as immune-related, and 12 as related to oxidation-reduction processes. The microarray results were validated by qPCR analysis of 29 microarray-identified transcripts. Diets significantly modulated the transcription of genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism (gck and pfkfb4), cell growth and proliferation (sgk2 and htra1), apoptosis (gadd45b), lipid metabolism (fabp3, idi1, sqs), and immunity (igd, mx, ifit5, and mhcI). Hierarchical clustering and linear correlation analyses were performed to find gene expression patterns among the qPCR-analyzed transcripts, and connections between them and muscle and liver lipid composition. Overall, our results indicate that changes in the liver transcriptome and tissue lipid composition were driven by cholesterol synthesis up-regulation by ABP and VEG diets, and the lower carbohydrate intake in the ABP group. Two of the microarray-identified genes (sgk2 and htra1) might be key to explaining glucose metabolism regulation and the dietary-modulation of the immune system in fish. To evaluate the potential of these genes as predictive biomarkers, we subjected the qPCR data to a stepwise discriminant analysis. Three sets of no more than four genes were found to be able to predict, with high accuracy (67-94%), salmon growth and fatty acid composition. CONCLUSIONS:This study provides new findings on the impact of terrestrial animal and plant products on the nutrition and health of farmed Atlantic salmon, and a new method based on gene biomarkers for potentially predicting desired phenotypes, which could help formulate superior feeds for the Atlantic salmon aquaculture industry.
Project description:Probiotics, the live microbial strains incorporated as dietary supplements, are known to provide health benefits to the host. These live microbes manipulate the gut microbial community by suppressing the growth of certain intestinal microbes while enhancing the establishment of some others. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been widely studied as probiotics; in this study we have elucidated the effects of two fish-derived LAB types (RII and RIII) on the distal intestinal microbial communities of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). We employed high-throughput 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing to investigate the bacterial communities in the distal intestinal content and mucus of Atlantic salmon fed diets coated with the LABs or that did not have microbes included in it. Our results show that the supplementation of the microbes shifts the intestinal microbial profile differentially. LAB supplementation did not cause any significant alterations in the alpha diversity of the intestinal content bacteria but RIII feeding increased the bacterial diversity in the intestinal mucus of the fish. Beta diversity analysis revealed significant differences between the bacterial compositions of the control and LAB-fed groups. Lactobacillus was the dominant genus in LAB-fed fish. A few members of the phyla Tenericutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Spirochaetes were also found to be abundant in the LAB-fed groups. Furthermore, the bacterial association network analysis showed that the co-occurrence pattern of bacteria of the three study groups were different. Dietary probiotics can modulate the composition and interaction of the intestinal microbiota of Atlantic salmon.
Project description:Elevated concentrations of LDL cholesterol are associated with the development of atherosclerosis and therefore are considered an important target for intervention to prevent cardiovascular diseases. The inhibition of cholesterol absorption in the small intestine is an attractive approach to lowering plasma cholesterol, one that is addressed by drug therapy as well as dietary supplementation with plant sterols and plant sterol esters (PSEs).This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that the cholesterol-lowering effects of PSE require hydrolysis to free sterols (FSs).Male Syrian hamsters were fed atherogenic diets (AIN-93M purified diet containing 0.12% cholesterol and 8% coconut oil) to which one of the following was added: no PSEs or ethers (control), 5% sterol stearate esters, 5% sterol palmitate esters (PEs), 5% sterol oleate esters (OEs), 5% sterol stearate ethers (STs; to mimic nonhydrolyzable PSE), or 3% FSs plus 2% sunflower oil. The treatments effectively created a spectrum of PSE hydrolysis across which cholesterol metabolism could be compared. Metabolic measurements included cholesterol absorption, plasma and liver lipid concentration, and fecal neutral sterol and bile acid excretion.The STs and the PEs and SEs were poorly hydrolyzed (1.69-4.12%). In contrast, OEs were 88.3% hydrolyzed. The percent hydrolysis was negatively correlated with cholesterol absorption (r = -0.85; P < 0.0001) and positively correlated with fecal cholesterol excretion (r = 0.92; P < 0.0001), suggesting that PSE hydrolysis plays a central role in the cholesterol-lowering properties of PSE.Our data on hamsters suggest that PSE hydrolysis and the presence of FSs is necessary to induce an optimum cholesterol-lowering effect and that poorly hydrolyzed PSEs may lower cholesterol through an alternative mechanism than that of competition with cholesterol for micelle incorporation.
Project description:Marine oils are important to human nutrition as the major source of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a key omega-3 long-chain (?C20) polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA) that is low or lacking in terrestrial plant or animal oils. The inclusion of fish oil as main source of n-3 LC-PUFA in aquafeeds is mostly limited by the increasing price and decreasing availability. Fish oil replacement with cheaper terrestrial plant and animal oils has considerably reduced the content of n-3 LC-PUFA in flesh of farmed Atlantic salmon. Novel DHA-enriched oils with high alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) content will be available from transgenic oilseeds plants in the near future as an alternative for dietary fish oil replacement in aquafeeds. As a preliminary validation, we formulated an oil blend (TOFX) with high DHA and ALA content using tuna oil (TO) high in DHA and the flaxseed oil (FX) high in ALA, and assessed its ability to achieve fish oil-like n-3 LC-PUFA tissue composition in Atlantic salmon smolts. We applied proteomics as an exploratory approach to understand the effects of nutritional changes on the fish liver. Comparisons were made between fish fed a fish oil-based diet (FO) and a commercial-like oil blend diet (fish oil + poultry oil, FOPO) over 89 days. Growth and feed efficiency ratio were lower on the TOFX diet. Fish muscle concentration of n-3 LC-PUFA was significantly higher for TOFX than for FOPO fish, but not higher than for FO fish, while retention efficiency of n-3 LC-PUFA was promoted by TOFX relative to FO. Proteomics analysis revealed an oxidative stress response indicative of the main adaptive physiological mechanism in TOFX fish. While specific dietary fatty acid concentrations and balances and antioxidant supplementation may need further attention, the use of an oil with a high content of DHA and ALA can enhance tissue deposition of n-3 LC-PUFA in relation to a commercially used oil blend.