MRNA expression in CD4+ CD25+ GITR+ regulatory T cells from WT and Bach2 KO mice
ABSTRACT: Bach2 regulates homeostasis of foxp3+ regulatory T cells and protects against fatal lung disease in mice. Cells from WT and Bach2 KO spleen were isolated. CD4+ CD25+ GITR+ (Treg) cells were sorted by FACS sorting. Total RNAs were extracted from sorted Treg cells using by Rneasy Kit (Qiagen).
Project description:Through a diversity of functional lineages, cells of the innate and adaptive immune system either drive or constrain immune reactions within tumors. Thus, while the immune system has a powerful ability to recognize and kill cancer cells, this function is often suppressed preventing clearance of disease. The transcription factor (TF) BACH2 controls the differentiation and function of multiple innate and adaptive immune lineages, but its role in regulating tumor immunity is not known. Here, we demonstrate that BACH2 is required to establish immunosuppression within tumors. We found that growth of subcutaneously implanted tumors was markedly impaired in Bach2-deficient mice and coincided with intratumoral activation of both innate and adaptive immunity but was dependent upon adaptive immunity. Analysis of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in Bach2-deficient mice revealed high frequencies of CD4+ and CD8+ effector cells expressing the inflammatory cytokine IFN-γ. Lymphocyte activation coincided with reduction in the frequency of intratumoral CD4+ Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells. Mechanistically, Treg-dependent inhibition of CD8+ T cells was required for BACH2-mediated tumor immunosuppression. These findings demonstrate that BACH2 is a key component of the molecular programme of tumor immunosuppression and identify a new target for development of therapies aimed at reversing immunosuppression in cancer. Analysis of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in Bach2-deficient mice revealed high frequencies of CD4+ and CD8+ effector cells expressing the inflammatory cytokine IFN-γ. Lymphocyte activation coincided with reduction in the frequency of intratumoral CD4+ Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells. Mechanistically, Treg-dependent inhibition of CD8+ T cells was required for BACH2-mediated tumor immunosuppression.
Project description:Through their functional diversification, CD4+ T cells play key roles in both driving and constraining immune-mediated pathology. Transcription factors are critical in the generation and maintenance of cellular diversity and negative regulators antagonistic to alternate fates often act in conjunction with positive regulators to stabilize lineage specification1. Polymorphisms within the locus encoding a transcription factor BACH2 are associated with diverse immune-mediated diseases including asthma2, multiple sclerosis3, Crohn¹s disease4-5, coeliac disease6, vitiligo7 and type 1 diabetes8. A role for Bach2 in maintaining immune homeostasis, however, has not been established. Here, we define Bach2 as a broad regulator of immune activation that stabilizes immunoregulatory capacity while repressing the differentiation programmes of multiple effector lineages in CD4+ T cells. Bach2 was required for efficient formation of regulatory (Treg) cells and consequently for suppression of lethal inflammation in a manner that was Treg cell dependent. Assessment of the genome-wide function of Bach2, however, revealed that it represses genes associated with effector cell differentiation. Consequently, its absence during Treg polarization resulted in inappropriate diversion to effector lineages. In addition, Bach2 constrained full effector differentiation within Th1, Th2 and Th17 cell lineages. These findings identify Bach2 as a key regulator of CD4+ T-cell differentiation that prevents inflammatory disease by controlling the balance between tolerance and immunity. The role of Bach2t to regulate immune homeostasis was investigated by mapping DNA binding profiles of Bach2 in iTreg condition. The function of Bach2 was also evaluated by comparing transcriptome in WT and Bach2-deficient iTreg cells and further comparison was done with transcriptome in naive, Th1, Th2, and Th17 conditions.
Project description:The role of FoxP3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells in the maintenance of immunological tolerance is well established. Recently, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in humans have associated polymorphisms within the BACH2 locus encoding the transcription factor BTB and CNC homology 1, basic leucine zipper transcription factor 2 (Bach2) with diverse allergic and autoimmune diseases including asthma, multiple sclerosis, Crohn's disease, celiac disease, generalized vitiligo and type 1 diabetes. Common to these diseases is a failure to adequately maintain immunological tolerance. However, a role for Bach2 in this process has not been established. Here, by assessing the phenotype of mice in which the Bach2 gene is disrupted, we demonstrate a non-redundant role for Bach2 in the prevention of a spontaneous lethal inflammatory disorder predominantly affecting the lung and gut with excessive T helper 2 (Th2) responses and formation of circulating autoantibodies. Bach2 was necessary for efficient induction of FoxP3 expression both during thymopoesis and upon stimulation of naïve peripheral CD4+ T cells under Treg polarizing conditions in vitro. Consequently, in bone marrow reconstitution experiments, Bach2 expression within the haematopoetic system was necessary for suppression of lethal autoimmunity in a manner that was FoxP3 dependent. These findings demonstrate a requirement for Bach2 in early lineage commitment of both thymic and induced Treg cells and point to shared mechanisms that underlie diverse allergic and autoimmune disorders that may serve as targets in the development of novel therapeutic strategies. Six samples were collected from separate mice: three Ly5.1+ wildtype thymocyte samples (biological replicates) and three Ly5.1- Bach2 knockout thymocyte samples (biological replicates).
Project description:We report here the broad transcriptomic program regulated by BACH2 transcription factor. We used a well suited in vitro model of B cell differentiation to evaluate transcriptomic program governed by BACH2 leading to Plasmocyte (PC) differentiation. In this model B cells were cultured with anti-BCR, CpG, CD40L and Interleukin-2 (IL2). This Interleukin triggers PC differentiation by directly repressing BACH2 expression. We artificially inhibit BACH2 expression by siRNA and found that this condition is sufficient to trigger PC differentiation without IL2. To understand global changes induced by enforced BACH2 downregulation we compared Chip-Sequencing data between activated B Cells and BACH2 deficient B cells (siBACH2). We found that BACH2 binds more than 3000 genes across the human genome. RNAsequencing comparing IL2 drivent committed cells and siBACH2 committed cells highlighs a large common trasncriptional program shared by both conditions and involved in B cell destiny. This study provides evidence that BACH2 is a guardian of B cell fate. Overall design: Differential gene expression data between 3 conditions (RNAsequencing in triplicate) : Uncomitted, comitted, and BACH2-deficient B cells integrated with BACH2 ChipSequencing on human activated B cells versus BACH2 deficient B cells as control.
Project description:We investigated at which stage of maturation commitment to a stable Foxp3-expressing phenotype takes place. We assessed stability of Foxp3 expression in thymic Foxp3+ Treg subsets of different maturity, defined by CD24 expression. Next we compared gene expression profiles of Foxp3+ Treg subsets (+) of different maturity (24lo, 24int, 24hi) and could identify a set of genes that were specifically up or downregulated in Foxp3+ Tregs, but not in Foxp3- conventional T cells, in a maturation-dependent manner. Gene expression of Foxp3+ Treg subsets (+) of different maturity (24lo, 24int, 24hi) compared to their Foxp3- conventional Tcell subsets (-) counterpart.
Project description:The transcriptional repressors BCL6 and BACH2 are crucial regulators of germinal center (GC) B-cell fate, and are known to interact and repress transcription of PRDM1, a key driver of plasma cell differentiation. How these factors cooperate is not fully understood. Herein we show that while GC formation is only minimally impaired in Bcl6+/- or Bach2+/- mice, double heterozygous Bcl6+/-Bach2+/- mice exhibit profound reduction in GC formation. Splenic B-cells from Bcl6+/- Bach2+/- mice display accelerated plasmacytic differentiation and high expression of key plasma cell genes such as Prdm1, Xbp1 and CD138. ChIP-seq revealed that in B-cells BACH2 is mostly bound to genes together with its heterodimer partner MAFK. The BACH2-MAFK complex binds to sets of genes known to be involved in the GC response, 60% of which are also targets of BCL6. Approximately 30% of BACH2 peaks overlap with BCL6 including cis-regulatory sequences of the PRDM1 gene. BCL6 also modulates BACH2 protein stability and their protein levels are positively correlated in GC B-cells. Therefore, BCL6 and BACH2 cooperate to orchestrate gene expression patterning in GC B cells through both transcriptional and biochemical mechanisms, which collectively determine the proper initiation and timing of terminal differentiation. ChIP-seq using P18 antibodies in OCI-Ly7 cells
Project description:Mature lymphoid cells express the transcriptional repressor Bach2, which imposes regulation on humoral and cellular immunity. Here we found critical roles for Bach2 in the development of cells of the B lineage, commencing from the common lymphoid progenitor (CLP) stage, with Bach1 as an auxiliary. Overexpression of Bach2 in pre-pro-B cells deficient in the transcription factor EBF1 and single-cell analysis of CLPs revealed that Bach2 and Bach1 repressed the expression of genes important for myeloid cells (‘myeloid genes’). Bach2 and Bach1 bound to presumptive regulatory regions of the myeloid genes. Bach2hi CLPs showed resistance to myeloid differentiation even when cultured under myeloid conditions. Our results suggest that Bach2 functions with Bach1 and EBF1 to promote B cell development by repressing myeloid genes in CLPs. WT and Bach1 and Bach2 double deficient (DD) CLPs. Multipotent progenitors (MPPs) infected with control-GFP and Bach2-GFP and cultured several condition. Follicular B cells (Fo B) stimulated with IgM. Three expreriments was performed in this paper.
Project description:In order to investigate the function of Bach2 in pre-B ALL, we isolated bone marrow cells from wildtype and Bach2 knockout mice of C57Bl6 background and transformed them with BCR-ABL1. We compared the gene expression profiles of Bach2 wildtype and knockout pre-B ALL cells, both with and without imatinib treatment (2uM for 16h).
Project description:The B cell-specific BACH2 transcription factor is required for affinity maturation of mature B cells. Here, we show that Bach2 mediates negative selection at the pre-B cell receptor checkpoint and functions as a critical safeguard against leukemogenesis. Bach2-mediated activation of p53 is required for stringent elimination of pre-B cells that failed to productively rearrange immunoglobulin VH-DJH gene segments, and thus lack pre-B cell receptor expression. Upon productive VH-DJH gene rearrangement, pre-B cell receptor signaling ends negative selection through BCL6-mediated repression of p53. In patients with pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia, Bach2-mediated checkpoint control is frequently compromised and low levels of Bach2 expression represent a strong independent predictor of poor clinical outcome. Bach2+/+ pre-B cells resist leukemic transformation by Myc through Bach2-dependent upregulation of p53. Upon transformation with Myc, Bach2-/- pre-B cells fail to upregulate p53, form large colonies and initiate fatal leukemia in transplant recipient mice. ChIP-seq and gene expression analyses revealed that BACH2 competes with BCL6 for promoter binding and reverses BCL6-mediated repression of p53 and multiple other checkpoint control genes. These findings identify Bach2 as a key activator of p53 in pre-B cells, which is critical to maintain stringency of the pre-B cell receptor checkpoint and an important barrier against leukemic transformation. ChIP-seq using BACH2 and BCL6 antibodies in OCI-Ly7 cells
Project description:Although Bach2 plays an important role in regulating the Th2-type immune response, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. We herein demonstrate that Bach2 associates with Batf and binds to the regulatory regions of the Th2 cytokine gene loci. The Bach2-Batf complex antagonizes the recruitment of the Batf-Irf4 complex to AP-1 motifs and suppresses Th2 cytokine production. Furthermore, we found that Bach2 regulates the Batf and Batf3 expressions via two distinct pathways. First, Bach2 suppresses the maintenance of the Batf and Batf3 expression through the inhibition of IL-4 production. Second, the Bach2-Batf complex directly binds to the Batf and Batf3 gene loci and reduces transcription by interfering with the Batf-Irf4 complex. These findings suggest that IL-4 and Batf form a positive feedback amplification loop to induce Th2 cell differentiation and the subsequent Th2-type immune response, and Bach2-Batf interactions are required to prevent an excessive Th2 response. Overall design: Global patterns of H3K27ac level at the Th2 cytokine gene loci in the WT and Bach2-deficient naïve cells cultured under neutral or Th2 conditions (ChIP-seq analysis). Global patterns of Bach2 binding at the Th2 cytokine gene loci in the WT and Bach2-deficient naïve cells cultured under neutral conditions (ChIP-seq analysis). Gene expression in Bach2 WT-Th (Bach2 WT-Th (-)), Bach2 KO-Th (Bach2 KO-Th (-)), restimulated Bach2 WT-Th (Bach2 WT Th (+)) and re-stimulated Bach2 KO-Th (Bach2 KO Th (+)).