ABSTRACT: IMR-32 cells were subjected to lentiviral YRNA infection or nELAVL RNAi and/or UV stress followed by RNAseq analysis to monitor RNA level changes RNA from IMR-32 cells was Trizol extracted, Ribominus selected and submitted for high-throughput sequencing.
Project description:Non-stressed and UV-stressed IMR-32 cells were subjected to HITS-CLIP to monitor nELAVL binding changes during AD progression Nonstressed and stressed IMR-32 cells were UV-irradiated and subjected to nELAVL HITS-CLIP (detailed desription in accompanying paper)
Project description:OBJECTIVES:This study aims to explore the roles of N-myc and caspase-8 in TRAIL-resistant IMR-32 cells which exhibit MYCN oncogene amplification and lack caspase-8 expression. MATERIALS AND METHODS:We established N-myc-downregulated IMR-32 cells using shRNA lentiviral particles targeting N-myc and examined the effect the N-myc inhibition on TRAIL susceptibility in human neuroblastoma IMR-32 cells expressing caspase-8. RESULTS:Cisplatin treatment in IMR-32 cells increased the expression of death receptor 5 (DR5; TRAIL-R2), but not other receptors, via downregulation of NF-?B activity. However, the cisplatin-mediated increase in DR5 failed to induce cell death following TRAIL treatment. Furthermore, interferon (IFN)-? pretreatment increased caspase-8 expression in IMR-32 cells, but cisplatin failed to trigger TRAIL cytotoxicity. We downregulated N-myc expression in IMR-32 cells using N-myc-targeting shRNA. These cells showed decreased growth rate and Bcl-2 expression accompanied by a mild collapse in the mitochondrial membrane potential as compared with those treated with scrambled shRNA. TRAIL treatment in N-myc-negative cells expressing caspase-8 following IFN-? treatment significantly triggered apoptotic cell death. Concurrent treatment with cisplatin enhanced TRAIL-mediated cytotoxicity, which was abrogated by an additional pretreatment with DR5:Fc chimera protein. CONCLUSIONS:N-myc and caspase-8 expressions are involved in TRAIL susceptibility in IMR-32 cells, and the combination of treatment with cisplatin and TRAIL may serve as a promising strategy for the development of therapeutics against neuroblastoma that is controlled by N-myc and caspase-8 expression.
Project description:The antioxidant response element (ARE) is a cis-acting regulatory enhancer element found in the 5 flanking region of many phase II detoxification enzymes. Upregulation of ARE-dependent target genes is known to have neuroprotective effects; yet, the mechanism of activation is largely unknown. By screening an arrayed collection of approximately 15,000 full-length expression cDNAs in the human neuroblastoma cell line IMR-32 with an ARE-luciferase reporter, we have identified several cDNAs not previously associated with ARE activation. A subset of cDNAs, including sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1) and dipeptidylpeptidase III (DPP3), activated the ARE in primary mouse-derived cortical neurons. Overexpression of SQSTM1 and DPP3 in IMR-32 cells stimulated NRF2 nuclear translocation and led to increased levels of NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), a protein which is transcriptionally regulated by the ARE. When transfected into IMR-32 neuroblastoma cells that were depleted of transcription factor NRF2 by RNA interference, SQSTM1 and DPP3 were unable to activate the ARE or induce NQO1 expression, indicating that the ARE activation upon ectopic expression of these cDNAs is mediated by NRF2. Studies with pharmacological inhibitors indicated that 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase C (PKC) signaling are also essential for activity. Lastly, overexpression of these cDNAs conferred partial resistance to hydrogen peroxide induced toxicity, consistent with the induction of antioxidant and phase II detoxification enzymes which can protect from oxidative stress. This work and other such studies may provide mechanisms for activating the ARE in the absence of general oxidative stress, and a novel therapeutic approach to degenerative diseases and aging. Samples were taken from duplicate transfections of different antioxidant response element activators
Project description:A simple procedure for assay of Ins(1,4,5)P3 5-phosphatase is described. The reaction products [( 3H]Ins(1,4)P2, [3H]InsP and myo-[3H]inositol) are completely separated from one another, with quantitative yield, on Amprep SAX (100 mg) minicolumns. [3H]Ins(1,4,5)P3 [and [3H]Ins(1,3,4,5)P4] are adsorbed to the columns but not released to any appreciable extent by the elution conditions used. In GH3 cells, the stepwise dephosphorylation of [3H]Ins(1,4,5)P3 to myo-[3H]inositol was demonstrated, and was inhibited by 2.3-bisphosphoglycerate. The Km of the soluble form of the enzyme was lower in GH3 cells (8-13 microM) than in IMR-32 cells (26-32 microM) or in rat cerebral-cortical samples (22 microM. The Km of the particulate form of the enzyme was similar in all three preparations (10-16 microM). The pH profiles of the two soluble 5-phosphatases differed, with a wider pH optimum for the GH3-cell activity than for the IMR-32-cell activity. The soluble and particulate GH3 enzymes were more sensitive than the corresponding IMR-32 enzymes to inhibition by p-hydroxymercuribenzoate, whereas there were no differences in their sensitivities to glucose 6-phosphate, 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate, fructose 1.6- and 2.6-bisphosphate and non-radioactive Ins(1,3,4,5)P4. Dialysis of the soluble fractions and washing of the particulate fractions did not affect the inhibitor sensitivities, except for the soluble IMR-32 fraction and p-hydroxymercuribenzoate. The Km value of the soluble GH3 5-phosphatase activity was lower, and the inhibition by Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 greater, after adsorption to and elution from phosphocellulose. It is concluded that there are qualitative differences in the properties of the soluble 5-phosphatase activity from GH3 and IMR-32 cells.
Project description:The process of autophagy and its role in survival of human neuroblastoma cell cultures was studied upon addition of an anti-GD2 ganglioside (GD2) 14G2a mouse monoclonal antibody (14G2a mAb) and an aurora A kinase specific inhibitor, MK-5108. It was recently shown that combination of these agents significantly potentiates cytotoxicity against IMR-32 and CHP-134 neuroblastoma cells in vitro, as compared to the inhibitor used alone. In this study we gained mechanistic insights on autophagy in the observed cytotoxic effects exerted by both agents using cytotoxicity assays, RT-qPCR, immunoblotting, and autophagy detection methods. Enhancement of the autophagy process in the 14G2a mAb- and MK-5108-treated IMR-32 cells was documented by assessing autophagic flux. Application of a lysosomotropic agent-chloroquine (CQ) affected the 14G2a mAb- and MK-5108-stimulated autophagic flux. It is our conclusion that the 14G2a mAb (40 ?g/ml) and MK-5108 inhibitor (0.1 ?M) induce autophagy in IMR-32 cells. Moreover, the combinatorial treatment of IMR-32 cells with the 14G2a mAb and CQ significantly potentiates cytotoxic effect, as compared to CQ used alone. Most importantly, we showed that interfering with autophagy at its early and late step augments the 14G2a mAb-induced apoptosis, therefore we can conclude that inhibition of autophagy is the primary mechanism of the CQ-mediated sensitization to the 14G2a mAb-induced apoptosis. Although, there was no virtual stimulation of autophagy in the 14G2a mAb-treated CHP-134 neuroblastoma cells, we were able to show that PHLDA1 protein positively regulates autophagy and this process exists in a mutually exclusive manner with apoptosis in PHLDA1-silenced CHP-134 cells.
Project description:Eight new organometallic Ru(II)-arene complexes of the type [RuCl2(?6-arene)(?1-S-aroylthiourea)] (arene = p-cymene or benzene) were synthesized in order to evaluate the effect of the arene moiety and the substituent of the aroylthiourea ligand on the cytotoxicity of the complexes. The ligands (L1 and L2) and complexes (1-8) were characterized using analytical and spectroscopic (UV-visible, infrared, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and mass) methods. The structure of the ligands (L1 and L2) and complexes (1 and 3-6) was obtained from single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The cytotoxicity of the complexes was evaluated against four different cancer cell lines: MCF-7 (breast), COLO 205 (colon), A549 (lung), and IMR-32 (neuroblastoma). All the complexes showed good cytotoxicity and the highest was in the IMR-32 cell line, which articulates the specificity of these complexes toward the IMR-32 cancer cell line. The complexes 5, 7, and 8 exhibited remarkable cytotoxicity in the entire cancer cell lines tested, which was comparable with the standard drug, cisplatin. The anticancer mechanism of the complexes 3 and 7 in IMR-32 cells was evaluated by bright-field microscopy, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), DNA damage, and caspase-3 analyses. The cells treated with the complexes showed upregulated caspase-3 compared to the control, and it was found that ROS and MMP were dose-dependent on analysis. Also, bright-field microscopy and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining have correspondingly shown cellular membrane blebbing and DNA damage, which were morphological hallmarks of apoptosis. The study concluded that the complexes promoted the oxidative stress-mediated apoptotic death of the cancer cells through the generation of intracellular ROS, depletion of MMP, and damage of the nuclear material.