A metagenomic study revealing unexpectedly diverse functional groups in microbial communities of deep-ground oil
ABSTRACT: Samples of oil and production water were collected from five wells of the Qinghai Oilfield, China, and subjected to GeoChip hybridization experiments for microbial functional diversity profiling. Unexpectedly, a remarkable microbial diversity in oil samples, which was higher than that in the corresponding water samples, was observed, thus challenging previously believed assumptions about the microbial diversity in this ecosystem. Hierarchical clustering separated oil and water samples, thereby indicating distinct functional structures in the samples. Genes involved in the degradation of hydrocarbons, organic remediation, stress response, and carbon cycling were significantly abundant in crude oil, which is consistent with their important roles in residing in oil. Association analysis with environmental variables suggested that oil components comprising aromatic hydrocarbons, aliphatic hydrocarbons, and a polar fraction with nitrogen-, sulfur-, and oxygen-containing compounds were mainly influential on the structure of the microbial community. Furthermore, a comparison of microbial communities in oil samples indicated that the structures were depth/temperature-dependent. To our knowledge, this is the first thorough study to profile microbial functional diversity in crude oil samples. From the Qinghai Oilfield located in the Tibetan Plateau, northwest China, oil production mixtures were taken from four oil production wells (No. 813, 516, 48 and 27) and one injection well (No. 517) in the Yue-II block. The floating oil and water phases of the production mixtures were separated overnight by gravitational separation. Subsequently, the microbial community and the characteristics of the water solution (W813, W516, W48, and W27) and floating crude oil (O813, O516, O48, and O27) samples were analyzed. A similar analysis was performed with the injection water solution (W517).
Project description:Time is often not characterized as a variable in ecotoxicogenomic studies. In this study, the temporal kinetics in gene expression were determined during exposure to crude oil and a subsequent recovery period. Juvenile rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, were exposed for 96 hours to the water accomodated fractions of 0.4, 2 or 10 mg l-1 crude oil loadings. Following 96 h of exposure, fish were transferred to recovery tanks for 96 h. Gill and liver samples were collected after 24 and 96 h of exposure, and after 96 h of recovery for RNA extraction and microarray analysis. Fluorescently labeled cDNA was hybridized against matched controls, using salmonid cDNA arrays. Each exposure scenario generated unique patterns of altered gene expression. More genes responded to crude oil in the gill than in liver. In the gill, 1137 genes had altered expression at 24 hours, 2003 genes had altered expression levels at 96 h of exposure, yet by 96 h of recovery, no genes were significant ly altered in expression. The Gene Ontology terms associated with gill-responsive genes implicated membrane narcosis, a toxic mechanism for crude oil. By contrast, in the liver at 10 mg l-1, only five genes were changed at 24 h, yet 192 genes had altered expression after 96 h recovery. At 2 mg l-1 in the liver, many genes had altered regulation at all three timepoints. The 0.4 mg l-1 loading also showed 289 genes upregulated at 24 h after exposure. The Gene Ontology terms associated with altered expression in the liver suggested that the processes of protein synthesis, xenobiotic metabolism, and oxidoreductase activity were altered. The concentration-responsive expression profile of cytochrome P450 1A, a biomarker for oil exposure, did not predict the majority of gene expression profiles in any tissue or dose, since direct relationships with dose were not observed for most genes. While the genes and their associated functions agree with known modes of toxic action for crude oil, the gene lists obtained do not agree with our previously published work, presumably due to array analysis procedures. These results demonstrate that changes in gene expression with time and dose should be characterized in controlled laboratory settings before responses from field collected organisms are interpreted, and that processes for analyzing microarray data need to be developed such that standardized gene lists are developed, or that analysis is gene list independent before arrays are as a monitoring tool. Two channel experiment; Control versus exposed (samples were time matched). 3 biological replicates, two technical replicates for both exposed and control fish. Exposed and cotrol samples were paired so that fish had been sacrificed at the same time, but otherwise, samples were paired at random. One replicate per array
Project description:We studied the effect of dietary fat type, varying in polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio's (P/S) on development of metabolic syndrome. C57Bl/6J mice were fed purified high-fat diets (45E% fat) containing palm oil (HF-PO; P/S 0.4), olive oil (HF-OO; P/S 1.1) or safflower oil (HF-SO; P/S 7.8) for 8 weeks. A low-fat palm oil diet (LF-PO; 10E% fat) was used as a reference. Additionally, we analyzed diet-induced changes in gut microbiota composition and mucosal gene expression. The HF-PO diet induced a higher body weight gain and liver triglyceride content compared to the HF-OO, HF-SO or LF-PO diet. In the intestine, the HF-PO diet reduced microbial diversity and increased the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio. Although this fits a typical obesity profile, our data clearly indicate that an overflow of the HF-PO diet to the distal intestine, rather than obesity itself, is the main trigger for these gut microbiota changes. A HF-PO diet-induced elevation of lipid metabolism-related genes in the distal small intestine confirmed the overflow of palm oil to the distal intestine. Some of these lipid metabolism-related genes were previously already associated with the metabolic syndrome. In conclusion, our data indicate that saturated fat (HF-PO) has a more stimulatory effect on weight gain and hepatic lipid accumulation than unsaturated fat (HF-OO and HF-SO). The overflow of fat to the distal intestine on the HF-PO diet induced changes in gut microbiota composition and mucosal gene expression. We speculate that both are directly or indirectly contributive to the saturated fat-induced development of obesity and hepatic steatosis. Keywords: Diet intervention study Nine-week-old C57Bl/6J mice were fed a low-fat diet (LF-PO) and three different types of high-fat diet, based on palm oil (HF-PO; P/S1.0), olive oil (HF-OO; P/S4.6) and safflower oil (HF-SO; P/S10.1) for 8 weeks. Body weight was recorded weekly and after 7 weeks of diet intervention an oral glucose tolerance test was performed. After 2 weeks of diet intervention, 6 mice per high-fat diet group were anaesthetized with a mixture of isofluorane (1.5%), nitrous oxide (70%) and oxygen (30%) and the small intestines were excised. Adhering fat and pancreatic tissue were carefully removed. The small intestines were divided in three equal parts along the proximal to distal axis (SI 1, SI 2 and SI 3) and microarray analysis was performed on mucosal scrapings.
Project description:In this study we characterize the liver transcriptome changes in Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis) that coincide with controlled laboratory-based exposure to various concentrations of experimentally-weathered south Louisiana crude oil. Liver transcription was contrasted between doses and across timepoints following dosing.
Project description:In this study we characterize the gill transcriptome changes in Gulf killifish (Fundulus grandis) that coincide with controlled laboratory-based exposure to various concentrations of experimentally-weathered south Louisiana crude oil. Gill transcription was contrasted between doses and across timepoints following dosing.
Project description:Crude oil is the one of the most important natural assets of humankind, yet it is a major environmental pollutant, in particular, in marine environments. One of the largest crude oil polluted areas in the word is the semi-enclosed Mediterranean Sea, where the metabolic potential of indigenous populations towards the chronic pollution at a large scale is yet to be defined, particularly in anaerobic and micro-anaerobic marine sites. Here, we provided a novel insight into the active microbial metabolism in sediments from three environments along the coastline of Italy. Microbial proteomes exhibited prevalence in anaerobic metabolism, not related to the biodegradation directly, suggesting the strong limitation by oxygen induced by the carbon overload. They also point at previously unrecognized metabolic coupling between methane and methanol utilizers as well as sulfur reducers in marine petroleum polluted sediments.
2015-07-24 | PXD001490 | Pride
Project description:Microbial diversity in soils long-term contaminated with crude oil
Project description:The use of dispersants can be an effective way to deal with acute oil spills to limit environmental damage, however very little is known about whether chemically dispersed oil have the same toxic effect on marine organisms as mechanically dispersed oil. We exposed Atlantic cod larvae to chemically and mechanically dispersed oil for four days during the first-feeding stage of development, and collected larvae at 14 days post hatch for transcriptional analysis. A genome-wide microarray was used to screen for effects and to assess whether molecular responses to chemically and mechanically dispersed oil were similar, given the same exposure to oil (droplet distribution and concentration) with and without the addition of a chemical dispersant (Dasic NS).
Project description:The marine bacterium Rhodococcus erythropolis PR4 was demonstrated to be able for assimilation/biodegradation of hydrocarbons. Not just the chromosome but two large plasmids provide versatile enzyme sets involved in many metabolic pathways. In order to identify the key elements involved in biodegradation of the model compound, hexadecane, and diesel oil, we performed whole transcriptome analysis on cells grown in the presence of n-hexadecane and diesel oil. Sodium acetate grown cells were used as control. The final goal of the project is a comparative transcriptomic analysis of Rhodococcus erythropolis PR4 cells grown on acetate, on the model compound: hexadecane and the real substrate: diesel oil. Comparative transcriptomics of Rhodococcus erythropolis PR4 grown on n-hexadecane, diesel oil, and sodium acetate.
Project description:Traditional biomarkers for hydrocarbon exposure are not induced by all petroleum substances. The objective of this study was to determine if exposure to a crude oil and different refined oils would generate a common hydrocarbon-specific response in gene expression profiles that could be used as generic biomarkers of hydrocarbon exposure. Juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed to the water accommodated fraction (WAF) of either kerosene, gas oil, heavy fuel oil, or crude oil for 96 hours. Tissue was collected for RNA extraction and microarray analysis. Exposure to each WAF resulted in a different list of differentially regulated genes, with few genes in common across treatments. Exposure to crude oil WAF changed the expression of genes including CYP1A and GST with known roles in detoxification pathways. These gene expression profiles were compared to others from previous experiments which used a diverse suite of toxicants. Clustering algorithms successfully i dentified gene expression profiles resulting from hydrocarbon exposure. These preliminary analyses highlight the difficulties of using single genes as diagnostic of petroleum hydrocarbon exposures. Further work is needed to determine if multivariate transcriptomic-based biomarkers may be a more effective tool than single gene studies for exposure monitoring of different oils. Two channel experiment; control versus exposed (samples were time matched). 3 biological replicates, three technical replicates for both exposed and control fish. Samples were paired at random. One replicate per array