Comparative genomics of Staphylococcus aureus and the application of a “pan-genome” for assigning RNA-Seq transcript reads from divergent strains and in vivo human nasal samples
ABSTRACT: in vitro comparison between two MRSA grown in rich (BHI) and poor media (SNM), compared with the nasal metatranscriptome reads of S. aureus. Global expression profile of two MRSA strains of S.aureus harvested in two different growth phases and compared with a metatranscriptome nose sample of a S. aureus carrier.
Project description:Studies on S. aureus sub-populations revealed that genomes are well conserved between isolates from the same lineages despite geographic, temporal and selective diversity. However, variation of hundreds of genes can occur between isolates from different lineages and these genes could be involved in interaction with host components. In this study, we aimed to investigate the diversity of secreted virulence factors in human and zoonotic S. aureus isolates from different clonal complexes. We focused on the S. aureus clonal complexes (CC) 8 and CC22 as dominant human lineages, and CC398 as dominant livestock-associated MRSA (LA-MRSA) which is disseminating rapidly. To study the diversity of secreted virulence factors, we compared their extracellular proteomes using label-free LC-MS/MS analysis. A common protein database was created based on DNA sequencing data and PAN genome IDs.
Project description:GAPDHs from human pathogens S. aureus and P. aeruginosa can be readily inhibited by ROS-mediated direct oxidation of their catalytic active cysteines. Because of the rapid degradation of H2O2 by bacterial catalase, only steady-state but not one-dose treatment of H2O2 induces rapid metabolic reroute from glycolysis to pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). We conducted RNA-seq analyses to globally profile the bacterial transcriptomes in response to a steady level of H2O2, which reveals profound transcriptional changes including the induced expression of glycolytic genes in both bacteria. Our results revealed that the inactivation of GAPDH by H2O2 induces a metabolic reroute from glycolysis to PPP; the elevated levels of fructose 1,6-biphosphate (FBP) and 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phosphogluconate (KDPG) lead to dissociation of their corresponding glycolytic repressors (GapR and HexR, respectively) from their cognate promoters, thus resulting in derepression of the glycolytic genes to overcome H2O2-stalled glycolysis in S. aureus and P. aeruginosa, respectively. Given that H2O2 can be produced constitutively by the host immune response, exposure to the steady-state stress of H2O2 recapitulates more accurately bacterial responses to host immune system in vivo. RNA-seq in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococus aureus under steady state of H2O2
Project description:Staphylococcus aureus can infect a wide range of animals and pose as a serious threat to public health by transferring via animals or animal-derived food stuff. Even more importantly, multiple drug resistance development in the bacteria has resulted in therapeutic failure of a number of antibiotics. Therefore by realizing the need of time, this study was designed to investigate the underlying mechanisms of virulence and resistance in S. aureus. After screening through in vivo and in vitro virulence assays and susceptibility test, a highly virulent and multidrug resistant MRSA strain was selected for differential analysis by RNA-seq technology and gene expression results were verified by RT-qPCR. Up-regulation of crucial regulators like sarA and KdpDE seemed to play role in decreased expression of many exotoxin genes while enhanced the adhesion and cell wall protein expression, leading to strong biofilm production in the presence of inactivated agr system. In addition to resistance genes like blaZ, ermC and femA, up-regulation of vraS and multidrug ABC transporter genes contributed to the multidrug resistance in MRSA. Fluoroquinolone resistance was attributed to mutational changes in gyrA and parC genes. Our findings suggested that many virulence and resistance determinants in S. aureus are controlled by complex network of various regulators, and sarA is the most important of those as it adds to pathogenicity of the bacteria and ensures its survival in diverse environment. Further investigations are required to unveil these mechanisms in S. aureus. Four samples were analysed including 2 MRSA1679a test strain and 2 reference strain ATCC1 samples with two replicates of each.
Project description:Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection is becoming refractory to existing antibiotic therapy owing to the inherent ability of S. aureus to develop rapid resistance and is considered a major threat to public health. We found that a natural isolate of Bacillus pumilus from the Columbia River Estuary produces a strong anti-MRSA compound, amicoumacin A. As amicoumacin A has been reported to exhibit anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory, and anti-ulcer activities, we sought to uncover its mechanism of action. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis of S. aureus COL in response to amicoumacin A showed alteration in the expression of genes involved in several cellular processes including cell envelope turnover, cross-membrane transport, virulence, metabolism, and general stress response. The most highly induced gene was lrgA, encoding an antiholin-like product, which has been shown to be induced in response to a collapse of membrane potential. In order to gain further insight into the mechanism of action of amicoumacin A, a whole genome comparison of wild-type COL and amicoumacin A-resistant mutants isolated by serial passage method was carried out. Single point mutations resulting in codon substitutions were uncovered in several distinct genes: ksgA, RNA dimethyltranferase; fusA, elongation factor G; dnaG, primase, ; lacD, tagatose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase, ; and SACOL0611, encoding a putative glycosyl transferase gene. Based on these results, a candidate approach was undertaken to recreate the same amino acid substitution individually in FusA and KsgA, each of which resulted in two-fold resistance towards amicoumacin A. The fusA gene is known as the site for fusidic acid- resistant mutations; however the codon substitutions in EF-G that cause amicoumacin A resistance and fusidic acid resistance occur in separate domains and do not bring about cross resistance. Taken together, these results suggest that amicoumacin A might cause perturbation of the cell membrane and lead to energy dissipation. Decreased rates of cellular metabolism including protein synthesis and DNA replication in resistant strains might allow cells to compensate for membrane dysfunction and thus increase cell survivability. Amicoumacin A, isolated from Bacillus pumilus, was added to exponentially growing cultures (OD600 =0.5) of Staphylococcus aureus COL at concentrations leading to around 12% and 20% reduction of OD600 after 10 min and 40 min, respectively. Total RNA was isolated from three biological replicates. Labeled cDNA from treated and control cultures (Cy5) was hybridized against a common reference cDNA pool (Cy3). The reference pool was prepared from a mixture of equal amounts of total RNA isolated from all stress and control samples in the experiment.
Project description:Purpose: Staphylococcus aureus is a highly successful human pathogen responsible for wide range of infections. In this study, we provide insights into the virulence, pathogenicity, and antimicrobial resistance determinants of methicillin susceptible and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA; MRSA) recovered from non-healthcare environments. Experiment design: Three environmental MSSA and three environmental MRSA were selected for proteomic profiling using iTRAQ MS/MS. Gene Ontology (GO) Annotation and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) Pathway Annotation were applied to interpret the functions of the proteins detected. Results: 792 proteins were identified in MSSA and MRSA. Comparative analysis of MRSA and MSSA revealed that 8 of out 792 proteins were up-regulated and 156 down-regulated. Differentially abundant proteins were predominantly involved in catalytic and binding activity. Among 164 proteins that had differences in abundance, 29 proteins were involved in pathogenesis, antimicrobial activities，stress response, mismatch repair and cell wall synthesis. Twenty-two proteins associated with pathogenicity, including spa, sbi, clfA and dlt were up-regulated in MRSA. Moreover, the up-regulated pathogenic protein entC2 in MSSA was determined to be a super antigen potentially capable of triggering toxic shock syndrome in the host. Conclusions: Enhanced pathogenicity, antimicrobial activity and stress response were observed in MRSA compared to MSSA.
Project description:To combat methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections novel drugs are desperately needed. From a screen, we found that the anti-cancer drug sorafenib effectively kills MRSA strains. By synthetic variation of key structural features, we identified a potent analog, PK150, exhibiting activities against several pathogenic strains at sub-micromolar concentrations. The antibiotic induced rapid killing of S. aureus, including challenging persisters, and eradicated established biofilms. PK150 holds promising therapeutic potential as it did not induce in vitro resistance and exhibited oral bioavailability and in vivo efficacy. Mode of action analysis by chemical proteomics revealed several targets, including interference with menaquinone biosynthesis by inhibiting demethylmenaquinone methyltransferase and stimulation of protein secretion by altering the activity of signal peptidase IB. Reduced endogenous menaquinone levels along with enhanced levels of extracellular proteins of PK150-treated bacteria support this hypothesis. The associated antibiotic effects, especially the lack of resistance development, likely stem from the compound’s polypharmacology attribute.
Project description:Four sRNA libraries were generated and sequenced from the early developmental stage of primary roots (PRY), the later developmental stage of maize primary roots (PRO), seminal roots (SR), and crown roots (CR). Through integrative analysis, we identified 501 miRNAs (246 conserved and 255 novel ones) and found that the expression patterns of miRNAs differed dramatically in different maize roots. we generated and sequenced four maize small RNA libraries from the early developmental stage of primary roots (PRY), the later developmental stage of maize primary roots (PRO), seminal roots (SR), and crown roots (CR) using Solexa high-throughput sequencing technology
Project description:The precise mechanism and effects of antibiotics in host gene expression and immunomodulation in MRSA infection is unknown. Using a well characterized Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolate USA300 in a murine model of infection, we determined that linezolid and vancomycin induced differential production of bacterial toxins and host cytokines, differences in host gene expression, and differences in immunomodulators during MRSA bloodstream infection. A total of 35 A/J mice, categorized into seven groups (no infection; no infection with linezolid; no infection with vancomycin; 2 hour post-infection (hpi) S. aureus; 24 hpi S. aureus; 24 hpi S. aureus with linezolid; and 24 hpi S. aureus with vancomycin), were used in this study. Mice were injected with USA300 (6 x 106 CFU/g via i.p. route), then intravenously treated with linezolid (25 mg/kg) or vancomycin (25 mg/kg) at 2 hpi. Control and S. aureus infected mice were euthanized at each time point (2 h or 24h) following injection. Whole blood RNA was used for microarray; three cytokines and two S. aureus toxins [PantonValentine Leukocidin (PVL) and alpha hemolysin] were quantified in mouse serum by ELISA. S. aureus CFUs were significantly reduced in blood and kidney after linezolid or vancomycin treatment in S. aureus-infected mice. In vivo IL-1β in mouse serum was significantly reduced in both linezolid (p=0.001) and vancomycin (p=0.006) treated mice compared to untreated ones. IL-6 was significantly reduced only in linezolid treated (p<0.001) but not in vancomycin treated mice. However, another proinflammatory cytokine, TNF-α, did not exhibit altered levels in either linezolid or vancomycin treated mice (p=0.3 and p=0.51 respectively). In vivo level of bacterial toxin, Panton-Valentine leukocidin, in mouse serum was significantly reduced only in linezolid treated mice (p=0.02) but not in vancomycin treated mice. There was no significant effect of either treatment in in vivo level of alpha hemolysin production. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering using the gene expression data from 35 microarrays revealed distinct clustering based on infection status and treatment group. Study of the antibiotic-specific difference in gene expression identified the number of genes uniquely expressed in response to S. aureus infection, infection with linezolid treatment, and infection with vancomycin treatment. Pathway associations study for the differentially expressed genes in each comparison group (Control vs. 24 h S. aureus infection, 24 h S. aureus infection vs. 24 h S. aureus linezolid, and 24 h S. aureus infection vs. 24 h S. aureus vancomycin) in mice using Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) identified toll-like receptor signaling pathway to be common to every comparison groups studied. Glycerolipid metabolism pathway was uniquely associated only with linezolid treatment comparison group. The findings of this study provide the evidence that protein synthesis inhibitor like linezolid does a better job in treating MRSA sepsis compared to cell wall acting antibiotics like vancomycin. To identify differences in host gene expression in a murine sepsis model treated with a) linezolid and b) vancomycin, we used whole blood gene expression (RNA) signatures from A/J inbred mice infected with USA 300 MRSA to evaluate differences in host gene expression among mice treated with linezolid and vancomycin. We used 5 RNA samples from MRSA-infected, linezolid- or vancomycin-treated mice. A total of 7 experimental groups have been employed: 1) Uninfected control group: (negative controls). 2) Uninfected, linezolid-treated group: Uninfected, linezolid-treated mice. 3) Uninfected vancomycin-treated group: Uninfected, vancomycin-treated mice. 4) Infected control group (positive control 2 h) MRSA-infected, untreated mice. 5) Infected control group (positive control 24 h): MRSA-infected, untreated mice. 6) Infected linezolid group: MRSA-infected, linezolid-treated mice. 7) Infected vancomycin group: MRSA-infected, vancomycin-treated mice.
Project description:Three types of phenotypic expression of ß-lactam resistance has been reported in MRSA: heterogeneous-, homogeneous-, and Eagle-type resistance. Heterogeneous to homogeneous (hetero-to-homo) conversion of ß-lactam resistance is postulated to be caused by a chromosomal mutation (chr*) together with mecA-gene expression. The Eagle-type resistance is a special pattern of chr* expression in the pre-MRSA strain N315 under the strong mecI-gene mediated repression of mecA gene transcription. Here, for the identification of chr*, experiments were conducted using an in-vitro derived homogeneously imipenem-resistant MRSA strain N315∆IPH5 (∆IPH5). The strain was selected with imipenem 8 mg/L from the heterogeneously imipenem-resistant MRSA strain N315∆IP (∆IP). The whole genome sequencing of ∆IPH5 revealed the presence of a unique mutation in the rpoB gene, rpoB(N967I), causing the amino-acid (AA) substitution of Asp by Ile at the 967th AA position of the RNA polymerase ß subunit. The effect of the mutation on the phenotypic change was confirmed by constructing and studying the phenotype of the strains H5rpoB(I967N), a ∆IPH5-derived strain cured of the rpoB mutation, and N315rpoB(N967I), a N315-derived strain introduced with the mutated rpoB gene. H5rpoB(I967N) regained the hetero-MRSA phenotype, and the mutant strain N315rpoB(N967I) showed an Eagle-type phenotype similar to that of N315h4. Furthermore, subsequent whole genome sequencing revealed that N315h4 also had a missense mutation in the rpoB gene rpoB(R644H). The rpoB mutations caused decreased autolysis, prolonged doubling-time, and tolerance to bactericidal concentrations of methicillin. We concluded that the certain rpoB mutations are chr* responsible for the hetero-to-homo phenotypic conversion of MRSA. We compared the gene expression profiles of the wild-type strain and rpoB mutant (N967I) using a 60mer oligo array.
Project description:Purpose: Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has revolutionized systems-based analysis of gene regulon. The goal of this study is to investigate the genes regulated by Rsp in MRSA BD02-25 Methods: mRNA profiles of wild-type (WT) and Rsp knockout (△Rsp) MRSA at mid-logarithmic growth phase (4h) were generated by deep sequencing, respectively in duplicate samples, using the Hiseq2000 (Illumina, CA) sequencer. The sequence reads that passed quality filters were aligned to S. aureus COL (RefSeq accession number NC_002951.2) using the Burrows-Wheeler Alignment tool (BWA) followed by ANOVA (ANOVA). Only the consistent data between the two WT or mutant samples were reserved for further analysis. qRT–PCR validation was performed using SYBR Green assays. Results: Using an optimized data analysis workflow, RNA-seq analyses revealed that 328 genes were up-regulated and 176 genes were down-regulated in △rsp compared with wild type. In order to explain the major relevant changes in △rsp compare to wild-type, the differential expressed genes obtained in RNA-seq with three biological replicates were used to construct a regulation network. 108 up-regulated genes and 33 down-regulated genes in RNA-seq data had gathered in the protein-protein interaction network. 15 modules of biological processes were responsible, including ribosome, metabolism, biofilm formation, cell wall degradation, cytolysis, two-component system and so on. Biological processes related to biofilm formation, such as cell wall degradation and metabolism were up regulated, indicating that the defense systems were activated. However, the genes that responsible for the two-component system and cytolysis were down regulated, suggesting a possible pathway how Rsp controls the virulence. Conclusions: Our data provide new information to the virulence regulatory network in S. aureus. mRNA profiles of wild-type (WT) and Rsp knockout (△Rsp) MRSA were generated by deep sequencing, in duplicate, using the Hiseq2000 (Illumina, CA) sequencer.