A Novel Human Gastric Primary Cell Culture System for Modeling Helicobacter Pylori Infection In Vitro
ABSTRACT: We identified specific long-term culture conditions that allow the formation of 3-dimensional human gastric spheroids, which can be differentiated by withdrawal of Wnt3A and R-spondin1 to human gastric organoids. These cultures can expand indefinitely and exhibit important characteristics of human stomach tissue. Furthermore, these 3-dimensional cultures can be transferred into 2-dimensional primary epithelial cell layers, which can be successfully infected with H. pylori and thereby provide ideal conditions to study infections in vitro. Microarray experiments were performed as dual-color hybridizations on Agilent human whole genome catalog 44K arrays. To compensate for dye-specific effects, a dye-reversal color-swap was applied.
Project description:In Rspondin-based three-dimensional cultures, Lgr5 stem cells from multiple organs form ever-expanding epithelial organoids that retain their tissue identity. Here we report the establishment of tumor organoid cultures from 20 consecutive colorectal carcinoma (CRC) patients. For most, organoids were also generated from adjacent normal tissue. Organoids closely resemble the original tumor. The spectrum of genetic changes within the 'living biobank' agrees well with previous large-scale mutational analyses of CRC. Gene expression analysis indicates that the major CRC molecular subtypes are represented. Tumor organoids are amenable to high-throughput drug screens allowing detection of gene-drug associations. As an example, a single organoid culture was exquisitely sensitive to Wnt secretion (porcupine) inhibitors and carried a mutation in the negative Wnt feedback regulator RNF43, rather than in APC. Organoid technology may fill the gap between cancer genetics and patient trials, complement cell line- and xenograft-based drug studies and allow personalized therapy design. Self-renewal of the intestinal epithelium is driven by Lgr5 stem cells located in crypts. We have recently developed a long-term culture system that maintains basic crypt physiology. Wnt signals are required for the maintenance of active crypt stem cells. Indeed, the Wnt agonist R-spondin1 induces dramatic crypt hyperplasia in vivo. R-spondin-1 is the ligand for Lgr5. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling is associated with intestinal proliferation, while transgenic expression of Noggin induces a dramatic increase in crypt numbers. The combination of R-spondin-1, EGF, and Noggin in Matrigel sustains ever-expanding small intestinal organoids, which display all hallmarks of the original tissue in terms of architecture, cell type composition, and self-renewal dynamics. We adapted the culture condition for long-term expansion of human colonic epithelium and primary colonic adenocarcinoma, by adding nicotinamide, A83-01 (Alk inhibitor), Prostaglandin E2 and the p38 inhibitor SB202190. Of note, a two-dimensional culture method for cells from normal and malignant primary tissue has been described by Schlegel and colleagues. Here, we explore organoid technology to routinely establish and phenotypically annotate ‘paired organoids’ derived from adjacent tumor and healthy epithelium from CRC patients.
Project description:In Rspondin-based 3D cultures, Lgr5 stem cells from multiple organs form ever-expanding epithelial organoids that retain their tissue identity. We report the establishment of tumor organoid cultures from 20 consecutive colorectal (CRC) patients. For most, organoids were also generated from adjacent normal tissue. The organoids closely resemble the original tumor. The spectrum of genetic changes observed within the 'living biobank' agrees well with previous large-scale mutational analyses of CRC. Gene expression analysis indicates that the major CRC molecular subtypes are represented. Tumor organoids are amenable to robotized, high-throughput drug screens allowing detection of gene-drug associations. As an example, a single organoid culture was exquisitely sensitive to Wnt secretion (porcupine) inhibitors and carried a mutation in the negative Wnt feedback regulator RNF43 (rather than in APC). Organoid technology may fill the gap between cancer genetics and patient trials, complement cell line- and xenograft-based drug studies and allow personalized therapy design. We generated organoids from healthy tissue and coloncarcinoma tissue. The organoids were trypsinized, plated in matrigel and overlaid with medium. After three days, RNA was isolated using Qiagen RNAeasy. Medium conditions are the same for all organoids, irrespective of their origin.
Project description:Pioneering studies within the last few years have allowed the in vitro expansion of tissue-specific adult stem cells from a variety of endoderm-derived organs, including the stomach, small intestine and colon. Here we derived organoids from mouse gallbladder tissue (gallbladder organoids), from mouse liver (including the extrahepatic biliary ducts and gallbladder; liver organoids) and from mouse small intestine tissue (intestinal organoids). RNA was prepared from these organoids and used to assay expression of 21,258 genes using Affymetrix gene expression arrays. RNA was also prepared from mouse gallbladder, liver and small intestine tissues and used to assay gene expression in these tissues. Finally, gallbladder organoids were induced to differentiate by removing R-spondin 1 and noggin from the culture media and subjected to gene expression array analysis. RNA was extracted from mouse gallbladder organoids, differentiated gallbladder organoids, liver organoids, small intestine organoids, gallbladder tissue, liver tissue and small intestine tissue and then used for hybridization of Affymetrix gene expression microarrays.
Project description:We previously established long-term 3D organoid culture systems for several murine tissues (intestine, stomach, pancreas and liver) as well as human intestine and pancreas. Here, we describe culture conditions to generate long-term 3D culture from human gastric stem cells. The technology can be applied to study the epithelial response to infection with Helicobacter pylori. Human gastric cultures can expand indefinitely in 3D Matrigel. Cultures can be generated from normal tissue, from single sorted stem cells, or from tumor tissue. Organoids maintain many characteristics of the respective tissue in terms of histology, marker expression and euploidy. Organoids from normal tissue express markers of four lineages of the stomach and self-organize in gland and pit-domains. They can be directed to specifically express either lineages of the gastric gland, or the gastric pit by addition of Nicotinamide and withdrawal of Wnt. While gastric pit lineages react marginally to bacterial infection, gastric gland lineages mount a strong inflammatory response. The gastric culture system provides a unique tool to study gastric pathologies. We generated 2 sets of experiments. The first set contains organoids in 4 conditions: (1) organoids in expansion condition ENRWFGNiTi ("gland-type organoids") from 3 donors, (2) organoids as in 1 but differentiated for 4 days in differentiation condition ENR_FGNiTi ("pit'type organoids"), (3) organoids as in 1 but infected with Helicobacter pylori strain P12 MOI 50 for 2 h, (4) organoids as in 2 but infected as in 3. All 4 conditions were tested on the same organoid line in parallel. This experiment was conducted independently with cultures from 3 different donors. The second set of experiments compares freshly isolated glands with organoids. Samples from 2 patients were analyzed. Each patient received a total gastrectomy. From each patient, glands from corpus region or pyloric antrum were isolated. From each isolation, one aliquod was stored for microarray analysis and one aliquod used to generate organoids. Organoids and glands were subsequently lysed and analyzed in parallel.
Project description:Background & Aims: The contribution of genetics to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been established by twin studies, targeted sequencing and genome-wide association studies (GWASs). This has yielded a plethora of risk loci with an aim to identify causal variants. Research on the genetic components of IBD has mainly focused on protein coding genes, thereby omitting other functional elements in the human genome i.e. the regulatory regions. Methods: Using acetylated histone 3 lysine 27 (H3K27ac) chromatin immunoprecipitation and sequencing (ChIP-seq), we identified tens of thousands of potential regulatory regions that are active in intestinal epithelium and immune cells, the main cell types involved in IBD. We correlated these regions with susceptibility loci for IBD. Results: We show that 45 out of 163 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with IBD co-localize with active regulatory elements. In addition, another 47 IBD associated SNPs co-localize with active regulatory element via other SNP in strong linkage disequilibrium. Altogether 92 out of 163 IBD-associated SNPs can be connected with distinct regulatory element. This is 2.5 to 3.5 times more frequent than expected from random sampling. The genomic variation in these SNPs often creates or disrupts known binding motifs - thereby possibly affecting the binding affinity of transcriptional regulators and altering the expression of regulated genes. Conclusions: We show that in addition to protein coding genes, non-coding DNA regulatory regions, active in immune cells and in intestinal epithelium, are involved in IBD. H3K27ac ChIP-seq (ab4729, Abcam) profile of 7 intestinal epithelial samples
Project description:Tissue for normal colonic stem cell isolation was obtained via colectomy from a colorectal cancer patient. It was shown that the resected tissue and the in vitro-cultured organoids grown from tissue-derived adult stem cells do not harbor chromosomal alterations. For that purpose, genomic DNA from resected mucosa or genomic DNA from adult stem cell-derived organoids grown in a 3-dimensional culture system was compared to white blood cell genomic DNA obtained from the same individual. Furthermore, in vitro organoids which were cultured and serially passaged for several weeks did not acquire chromosomal alterations. Analysis of chromosomal stability of colonic tissue or in vitro-cultured organoids via comparison with blood cells derived from the same individual.
Project description:As a result of a large number of in vitro as well as in vivo experiments with rodents, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its tyrosine kinase receptor TrkB are now widely appreciated to play major roles in brain function. There is also a growing appreciation that decreased BDNF signalling may be a significant component in a wide range of brain dysfunction in humans based on the discovery of mutations and polymorphisms in the corresponding genes. Human neurons generated in vitro had been shown to be responsive to TrkB phosphorylation upon treatment with BNDF, TrkB agonist ZEB85, the related factor neurotrophin-4 (NT4). In order to compare the transcriptional changes upon treatment with the three TrkB ligands RNA-seq analysis was deployed. Cultures had been treated in triplicates with BDNF, ZEB85 or NT4 for 30 minutes, 2 hours, 12 hours and 24 hours, while non treated controls were lysed at each time-point.
Project description:Trophoblast differentiation from human ESC has been achieved by exposing the cells to BMP4 with or without supplementation of ALK4/5/7 inhibitor (A83-01) and FGF2 signaling inhibitor (PD173074) (BAP). Here the two differentiation conditions, BMP4 and BAP were applied to two sets of human PSC lines, H1 ESC and iPSC that latter was generated by DOX-inducible lentiviral (V) transductions of umbilical cord mesenchymal cells. The V-iPSC showed residual transgene expressions from the viral vectors in DOX-free culture condition. When the both ESC and iPSC lines were differentiated simultaneously, similar time dependent morphological changes were observed but BMP4 treated V-iPSC showed a minor yet consistent lag in the differentiation progression compared to BMP4 treated hESC. Although both differentiated ESC and V-iPSC showed dominant trophoblast phenotypes, the BMP4 treated V-iPSC also expressed gene markers consistent with the presence of mesoendoderm. The BAP condition provided more efficient differentiation than BMP4 alone, and the BAP-differentiated iPSC and ESC never expressed mesoendoderm markers. Five samples, one control of undifferentiated V-iPSC (FGF2) and four differentiated samples included two H1 ESC (treated with BMP4 or BMP4+A83-01) and similarly treated two V-iPSC were analyzed. Trophoblast differentiation was conducted with BMP4 (10 ng/ml) with or without supplementation of ALK4/5/7 inhibitor (A83-01; 1 μM) to H1 ESC and V-iPSC, respective reagents were added to FGF2-free MEF-CM from the second day culture of following passages for up to six additional days.