Acquired resistance to mutant-selective EGFR inhibitor AZD9291 is associated with increased dependence on RAS signaling
ABSTRACT: To compare gene copy number in cell populations with acquired resistance to specified EGFR inhibitors to parental cell lines. The aim of the experiment was to determine whether gain or loss of copy number of particular genes was associated with resistance to particular EGFR inhibitors. Comparing gene copy number in PC9 parental cells to gene copy number in 5 cell populations resistant to AZD9291, 2 cell populations resistant to WZ4002, 2 cell populations resistant to afatinib and 4 cell populations resistant to gefitinib.
Project description:The clinical efficacy of EGFR kinase inhibitors is limited by the development of drug resistance. The irreversible EGFR kinase inhibitor WZ4002 is effective against the most common mechanism of drug resistance mediated by the EGFR T790M mutation. Here we show that in multiple complementary models harboring EGFR T790M, resistance to WZ4002 develops through aberrant activation of ERK signaling caused by either an amplification of MAPK1 or by downregulation of negative regulators of ERK signaling. Inhibition of MEK or ERK restores sensitivity to WZ4002, and the combination of WZ4002 and a MEK inhibitor prevents the emergence of drug resistance. The WZ4002 resistant MAPK1 amplified cells also demonstrate an increase both in EGFR internalization and a decrease in sensitivity to cytotoxic chemotherapy compared to the parental counterparts. Our findings provide insights into mechanisms of drug resistance to EGFR kinase inhibitors and highlight rational combination therapies that should be evaluated in clinical trials. The EGFR mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell line PC9 GR4 (delE746_A750/T790M) was exposed to increasing concentrations of WZ4002 similar to previously described methods. Individual clones from WZ4002-resistant (WZR) cells were isolated and confirmed to be drug resistant. Number of samples: 5. PC9GR4 as a control. 4 clones of WZ4002-resistant PC9GR4.
Project description:Bortezomib is a proteasome inhibitor used in severel different hematological malignancies. Resistance to this drug is still poorly understood. In order get more insight in the resistance mechanism, we developed several bortezomib resistant subclones of the CCRF-CEM T-ALL cell line. On these subclones comparative Genome hybridization (arrayCGH) for DNA copy number analysis gene expression and micro-RNA expression arrays were performed. We performed comparative Genome hybridization (arrayCGH) for DNA copy number analysis on four different bortezomib resistant subclones of the CCRF-CEM cell line. The resistant subclones were compared to the parental CCRF-CEM wildtype cell line and reference DNA.
Project description:Copy number profiling of 92 human lung tumors on Affymetrix 100K SNP arrays was conducted in order to assess the interaction of common genomic alterations with response to targeted anti-cancer therapeutics. Class 1 phosphatidylinositol 3' kinase (PI3K) plays a major role in cell proliferation and survival in a wide variety of human cancers. Here we investigate biomarker strategies for PI3K pathway inhibitors in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Molecular profiling of NSCLC tumor samples showed that copy number gains in PIK3CA and total loss of PTEN protein were common in squamous cell carcinoma samples, whereas LKB1 loss and mutations in KRAS and EGFR were common in adenocarcinomas. A panel of NSCLC cell lines characterized for alterations in the PI3K pathway was screened with PI3K and dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitors to assess the preclinical predictive value of candidate biomarkers. Cell lines harboring pathway alterations (RTK activation, PI3K mutation or amplification, PTEN loss) were exquisitely sensitive to the PI3K inhibitor GDC-0941. A dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor had broader activity across the cell line panel and in tumor xenografts. The combination of GDC-0941 with paclitaxel, erlotinib, or a MEK inhibitor had greater effects on cell viability than PI3K inhibition alone. CONCLUSIONS: Candidate biomarkers for PI3K inhibitors have predictive value in preclinical models and show histology-specific alterations in primary tumors, suggesting that distinct biomarker strategies may be required in squamous compared with non-squamous NSCLC patient populations. Lung tumors were profiled on Affymetrix GeneChip Mapping 100K Set Arrays Tumor samples were profiled for copy number without any treatment of the tumor.
Project description:Purpose: MET is a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) that has been considered a druggable target in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). To understand the mechanisms of resistance to MET-TKIs and establish therapeutic strategies, we developed an in vitro model using capmatinib-resistant cell lines (EBC-CR1, CR2, and CR3) derived from the MET-amplified NSCLC cell line EBC-1. Methods: We established capmatinib-resistant NSCLC cell lines from the MET-amplified NSCLC cell line EBC-1 and identified alternative signaling pathways using 3’mRNA sequencing and human phospho-RTK arrays. Copy number alterations were evaluated by quantitative PCR and cell proliferation assay; activation of RTKs and downstream effectors were compared between the parental cell line EBC-1 and the EBC-CR1, -CR2, and -CR3 resistant cell lines. Results: We found that epidermal growth factor (EGFR) mRNA expression and protein activation were increased in EBC-CR1–3 cells compared to EBC-1 cells. EBC-CR1 cells showed EGFR-dependent growth and sensitivity to afatinib, an irreversible EGFR TKI. EBC-CR2 cells, which overexpressed the EGFR-MET heterodimer, responded dramatically to the combination of capmatinib and the phosphoinositide-3 kinase catalytic subunit α (PIK3CA) inhibitor afatinib. In addition, EBC-CR3 cells, which had activated EGFR along with amplified PIK3CA, were sensitive to the combination of afatinib and the PI3Kα inhibitor. Conclusions: Our in vitro studies suggested that activation of EGFR signaling and/or genetic alteration of downstream effectors like PIK3CA were alternative resistance mechanisms used by capmatinib-resistant NSCLC cell lines. In addition, combined treatments with MET, EGFR, and PI3Kα inhibitors may be an effective therapeutic strategy in MET-TKI-resistant NSCLC patients. Overall design: RNA-Seq analysis of capmatinib-resistant cell lines (EBC-CR1, CR2, and CR3) derived from the MET-amplified NSCLC cell line EBC-1.
Project description:The non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell line HCC827 harbors an activating EGFR mutation (exon 19 deletion) that confers sensitivity to the FDA-approved EGFR inhibitor erlotinib. By applying the ClonTracer barcoding system, we were able to show the presence of pre-existing sub-populations in HCC827 that contribute to erlotinib resistance. Prior studies implicated that MET amplification confers resistance to erlotinib in this cell line. Therefore we examined the effects of the c-Met inhibitor crizotinib on the barcoded HCC827 population when treated either sequentially or simultaneously with both inhibitors. Despite the significant reduction in barcode complexity, the erlotinib/crizotinib combination treatment failed to eradicate all of the resistant clones implying the presence of an erlotinib/crizotinib dual resistant subpopulation. We performed transcriptome profiling (RNA-seq) to elucidate the potential resistance mechanisms of the dual resistant subpopulation in comparison to vehicle-treated or single agent erlotinib-resistant HCC827 cell populations as controls. mRNA profiling of the subpopulations of human NSCLC cell line HCC827 that contribute to EGFR inhibitor erlotinib and MET inhibitor crizotinib resistance
Project description:The model is based on publication:
Mathematical analysis of gefitinib resistance of lung adenocarcinoma caused by MET amplification
Gefitinib, one of the tyrosine kinase inhibitors of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), is effective for treating lung adenocarcinoma harboring EGFR mutation; but later, most cases acquire a resistance to gefitinib. One of the mechanisms conferring gefitinib resistance to lung adenocarcinoma is the amplification of the MET gene, which is observed in 5–22% of gefitinib-resistant tumors. A previous study suggested that MET amplification could cause gefitinib resistance by driving ErbB3-dependent activation of the PI3K pathway. In this study, we built a mathematical model of gefitinib resistance caused by MET amplification using lung adenocarcinoma HCC827-GR (gefitinib resistant) cells. The molecular reactions involved in gefitinib resistance consisted of dimerization and phosphorylation of three molecules, EGFR, ErbB3, and MET were described by a series of ordinary differential equations. To perform a computer simulation, we quantified each molecule on the cell surface using flow cytometry and estimated unknown parameters by dimensional analysis. Our simulation showed that the number of active ErbB3 molecules is around a hundred-fold smaller than that of active MET molecules. Limited contribution of ErbB3 in gefitinib resistance by MET amplification is also demonstrated using HCC827-GR cells in culture experiments. Our mathematical model provides a quantitative understanding of the molecular reactions underlying drug resistance.
Project description:East-Asian (EA) patients with Non Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) are associated with a high proportion of non-smoking women, EGFR activating somatic mutations, and clinical responses to tyrosine kinase inhibitors. We identify copy number alterations specific to EA and Western European (WE) NSCLCs and conducted an integrative analysis using transcritomic data for identifying copy-number-driven candidate genes. Samples were hybridized to Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human SNP 6.0 arrays according to the manufacturer’s specifications in the same center. 226 lung adenocarcinomas (90 East-Asian and 136 Western-European) were analyzed for copy-number aberrations (CNAs) using a common high resolution SNP microarray platform.
Project description:Cyclin E1 (CCNE1) is amplified in various tumor types including high-grade serous ovarian cancer where it is associated with poor clinical outcome. We have demonstrate that suppression of the Cyclin E1 partner kinase, CDK2, induces apoptosis in a CCNE1 amplicon-dependent manner. Little is known of mechanisms of resistance to CDK inhibitors. We therefore generated OVCAR-3 sublines with reduced sensitivity to CDK2 inhibitors and profiled by SNP copy number microarrays. Arrayed samples included parental OVCAR-3 cells and five independently derived sublines resistant to PHA-533533 (OVCAR3-533533-R1, -R3, -R5, -R6, -R7). The resistant cell lines were arrayed after drug selection (P5).
Project description:Gene copy-number variation, which provides the raw material for the evolution of novel genes, is surprisingly widespread in natural populations. Experimental evolution studies have demonstrated an extremely high spontaneous rate of origin of gene duplications. When organisms are suboptimally adapted to their environment, gene duplication may compensate for reduced fitness by amplifying promiscuous activity of a gene, or increasing dosage of a suboptimal gene. The overarching goal of this study is to inverstigate whether CNVs constitute a common mechanism of adaptive genetic change during compensatory evolution and to further characterize the role of natural selection in dictating their evolutionary spread at a population-genomic level. Outcrossing populations of C. elegans with low fitness were evolved for >200 generations and the frequencies of CNVs in these populations were analyzed by oligonucleotide array comparative genome hybridization, quantitative PCR, and single-worm PCR. Multiple duplications and deletions were detected in intermediate to high frequencies and several lines of evidence suggest that the changes in frequency were adaptive. 1) Many copy-number changes reached high frequency, were near fixation, or were fixed in a short time. 2) Many independent duplications and deletions in high frequency harbor overlapping regions which likely include genes that are under selection for either higher or lower rates of expression. 3) The size spectrum of deuplications and deletions in the adaptive recovery populations is significantly larger than that of spontaneous copy-number variants in mutation accumulation experiments. This is expected if larger CNVs are more likely to encompass genes that are being selected for altered gene dosage. Out results validate the great potential borne by gene copy-number changes for compensatory evolution and adaptation. Experimental genome evolution of copy-number variants in 25 experimental lines compared to 5 ancestral control lines.
Project description:The receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) EGFR is overexpressed and mutated in NSCLC. These mutations can be targeted by RTK inhibitors (TKIs), such as erlotinib. Chromatin-modifying agents offer a novel therapy approach by sensitizing tumor cells to TKIs. The NSCLC cell lines HCC827 (EGFR mutant, adenocarcinoma), A549 (EGFR wt, adenocarcinoma) and NCI-H460 (EGFR wt, large cell carcinoma) were analyzed by SNP6.0 array. Changes in proliferation were quantified by WST-1 assay, apoptosis by Annexin V/7-AAD flow cytometry and histone marks (acH3, H3K4me1,-2,-3) by immunoblotting. Expectedly, the EGFR wt cell lines A549 and NCI-H460 were insensitive to the growth-inhibiting effect of single-agent erlotinib (IC50 70-100µM), compared to HCC827 (IC50 <0.02μM). Treatment with panobinostat diminished growth to <50% in both EGFR wt and <30% in HCC827 cells. The combination of both drugs significantly reduced proliferation by ≥70% in A549, >95% in HCC827, but not further in NCI-H460. Panobinostat alone induced differentiation and expression of p21WAF1/CIP1 and p53 in all three cell lines, with almost no further increase when combined with erlotinib. In contrast, combination treatment additively decreased pERK, pAKT and pEGFR in A549, and synergistically induced acH3 in both adenocarcinoma lines. Surprisingly, we also saw an induction of H3K4 methylation marks in all three cell lines. In conclusion, panobinostat synergistically sensitized lung adenocarcinoma cells to the antiproliferative effects of erlotinib. Since single-agent erlotinib has only modest clinical effects in adenocarcinoma EGFR wt patients, combination therapy with an HDACi might offer a promising therapy approach to extend this activity. Copy-number analysis of three NSCLC cell lines HCC827, A549 and NCI-H460 (in unicates) was performed according to protocol by Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human SNP-Array 6.0.