Ribosome Profiling Reveals Pervasive Translation Outside of Annotated Protein-Coding Genes
ABSTRACT: Ribosome profiling suggests that ribosomes occupy many regions of the transcriptome thought to be non-coding, including 5' UTRs and lncRNAs. Apparent ribosome footprints outside of protein-coding regions raise the possibility of artifacts unrelated to translation, particularly when they occupy multiple, overlapping open reading frames (ORFs). Here we show hallmarks of translation in these footprints: co-purification with the large ribosomal subunit, response to drugs targeting elongation, trinucleotide periodicity, and initiation at early AUGs. We develop a metric for distinguishing between 80S footprints and nonribosomal sources using footprint size distributions, which validates the vast majority of footprints outside of coding regions. We present evidence for polypeptide production beyond annotated genes, including induction of immune responses following human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection. Translation is pervasive on cytosolic transcripts outside of conserved reading frames, and direct detection of this expanded universe of translated products enables efforts to understand how cells manage and exploit its consequences. Ribosome profiling to verify that true ribosome footprints shift in response to different elongation inhibitors (CHX vs Emetine) and co-purify with an affinity-tagged large ribosomal subunit (bound vs input)
Project description:Implicated in persistence and stress response pathways in bacteria, RelE shuts down protein synthesis by cleaving mRNA within the ribosomal A site. Structural and biochemical studies have shown that RelE cuts with some sequence specificity, which we further characterize here, and that it shows no activity outside the context of the ribosome. We obtained a global view of the effect of RelE on translation by ribosome profiling, observing that ribosomes accumulate on the 5’-end of genes through dynamic cycles of mRNA cleavage, ribosome rescue, and initiation. Moreover, the addition of purified RelE to cell lysates shows promise as a method for generating ribosome footprints. In bacteria, profiling studies have suffered from relatively low resolution and have yielded no information on reading frame due to problems inherent to MNase digestion, the method used to degrade unprotected regions of mRNA. In contrast, we find that RelE yields precise 3’-ends that for the first time reveal reading frame in bacteria. Given that RelE has been shown to function in all three domains of life, RelE has potential to improve reading frame and shed light on A-site occupancy in ribosome profiling experiments more broadly. Overall design: Ribosome profiling and RNAseq of E. coli MG1655, both WT and overexpressing RelE.
Project description:Accurate annotations of protein coding regions are essential for understanding how genetic information is translated into biological functions. The recent development of ribosome footprint profiling provides an important new tool for measuring translation. Here we describe riboHMM, a new method that uses ribosome footprint data along with gene expression and sequence information to accurately infer translated sequences. We applied our method to human lymphoblastoid cell lines and identified 7,863 previously unannotated coding sequences, including 445 translated sequences in pseudogenes and 2,442 translated upstream open reading frames. We observed an enrichment of harringtonine-treated ribosome footprints at the inferred initiation sites, validating many of the novel coding sequences. In aggregate, the novel sequences exhibit significant signatures of purifying selection indicative of protein-coding function, suggesting that many of the novel sequences are functional. We observed that nearly 40% of bicistronic transcripts showed significant negative correlation in the levels of translation of their two coding sequences, suggesting a key regulatory role for these novel translated sequences. Despite evidence for their functional importance, the novel peptide sequences were detected by mass spectrometry at a lower rate than predicted based on data from annotated proteins, thus suggesting that many of the novel peptide products may be relatively short-lived. Our work illustrates the value of ribosome profiling for improving coding annotations, and significantly expands the set of known coding regions. Overall design: Ribosome profiling assays were performed on cell lines treated with Harringtonine to generate data for validating translation initiatoin site prediction
Project description:Recent studies highlight the importance of translational control in determining protein abundance, underscoring the value of measuring gene expression at the level of translation. We present a protocol for genome-wide, quantitative analysis of in vivo translation by deep sequencing. This ribosome profiling approach maps the exact positions of ribosomes on transcripts by nuclease footprinting. The nuclease-protected mRNA fragments are converted into a DNA library suitable for deep sequencing using a strategy that minimizes bias. The abundance of different footprint fragments in deep sequencing data reports on the amount of translation of a gene. Additionally, footprints reveal the exact regions of the transcriptome that are translated. To better define translated reading frames, we describe an adaptation that reveals the sites of translation initiation by pre-treating cells with harringtonine to immobilize initiating ribosomes. The protocol we describe requires 5 - 7 days to generate a completed ribosome profiling sequencing library. Ribosome profiling in cultured mammalian cells under three different footprinting conditions
Project description:Upon initiation at an AUG start codon, the ribosome must maintain the correct reading frame for hundreds of codons in order to produce functional proteins. Although some sequence elements are able to trigger programmed ribosomal frameshifting (PRF), very little is known how the ribosome normally prevents spontaneous frameshift errors. Using high resolution ribosome profiling data sets, we discovered that the translating ribosome uses the 3’ end of 18S rRNA to scan the AUG-like codons after the decoding process. The internal mRNA:rRNA interaction not only contributes to predominant translational pausing, but also provides a post-decoding mechanism to safeguard the ribosome in the correct reading frame. Partially eliminating the AUG-like “sticky” codons in the reporter message leads to increased +1 frameshift errors. Remarkably, mutating the highly conserved CAU triplet of 18S rRNA globally changes codon “stickiness”. Further supporting the role of “sticky” sequences in reading frame maintenance, the codon composition of open reading frames is highly optimized across eukaryotic genomes by minimizing the appearance of AUG-like codons in the frame 2. These results suggest an important layer of information embedded within the protein coding sequences that instructs the ribosome to ensure reading frame fidelity during translation. Overall design: Investigating the role of 18S rRNA in controlling translational reading frame fidelity
Project description:Fully assembled ribosomes exist in two populations: polysomes and monosomes. While the former has been studied extensively, to what extent translation occurs on monosomes and its importance for overall translational output remains controversial. Here, we used ribosome profiling to examine the translational status of 80S monosomes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found that the vast majority of 80S monosomes are elongating, not initiating. Further, most mRNAs exhibit some degree of monosome occupancy, with monosomes predominating on nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) targets, upstream open reading frames (uORFs), canonical ORFs shorter than ~590 nucleotides and ORFs for which the total time required to complete elongation is substantially shorter than that required for initiation. Importantly, mRNAs encoding low-abundance regulatory proteins tend to be enriched in the monosome fraction. Our data highlight the importance of monosomes for the translation of highly regulated mRNAs. We examined the translational status of single 80S ribosomes using ribosome profiling, and compared these monosome footprints to both polysome ribosome footprints and general ribosome profiling. RNASeq libraries were also prepared from the overall sample input.
Project description:Although protein synthesis dynamics has been studied both with theoretical models and by profiling ribosome footprints, the determinants of ribosome flux along open reading frames (ORFs) are not fully understood. Combining measurements of protein synthesis rate with ribosome footprinting data, we here inferred translation initiation and elongation rates for over a thousand ORFs in exponentially-growing wildtype yeast cells. We found that the amino acid composition of synthesized proteins is as important a determinant of translation elongation rate as parameters related to codon and tRNA adaptation. We did not find evidence of ribosome collisions curbing the protein output of yeast transcripts, either in high translation conditions associated with exponential growth, or in strains in which deletion of individual ribosomal protein genes leads to globally increased or decreased translation. Slow translation elongation is characteristic of RP-encoding transcripts, which have markedly lower protein output compared to other transcripts with equally high ribosome densities.
Project description:So far, the annotation of translation initiation sites (TISs) has been based mostly upon bioinformatics rather than experimental evidence. We adapted ribosomal footprinting to puromycin-treated cells to generate a transcriptome-wide map of TISs in a human monocytic cell line. A neural network was trained on the ribosomal footprints at previously annotated AUG translation initiation codons (TICs), and used for the ab initio prediction of TISs in 5062 transcripts with sufficient sequence coverage. Functional interpretation suggested 2994 novel upstream open reading frames (uORFs) in the 5´ UTR (924 AUG, 2070 near-cognate codons), 1406 uORFs overlapping with the coding sequence (116 AUG, 1290 near-cognate) and 546 N-terminal protein extensions (6 AUG, 540 near-cognate). The TIS detection method was validated on the basis of previously published alternative TISs and uORFs. On average, TICs in newly annotated TISs were significantly more conserved among primates than control codons, both for AUGs (p<10-10) and near-cognate codons (p=3.8×10-3). The derived transcriptome-wide map of novel candidate TISs will help to explain how human proteome diversity is influenced by alternative translation initiation and regulation. Examination of translational initiation in human cell lines using ribosomal footprinting
Project description:Upstream open reading frames (uORFs) initiate translation within mRNA 5’ leaders,and have the potential to altermain coding sequence(CDS) translationontranscripts in which they reside. Ribosome profiling(RP)studies suggest that translating ribosomes are pervasive within 5’ leadersacross model systems. However, the significance of this observationremains unclear. To explore a role for uORF usage in neuronal differentiation, we performed RP on undifferentiated and differentiated human neuroblastoma cells. Using a spectral coherence algorithm (SPECtre),we identify4,954uORFsacross31%of all neuroblastoma transcripts. These uORFspredominantly utilize non-AUG initiationcodonsand exhibit translational efficiencies(TE)comparable to annotated coding regions. Usage of both AUG initiated uORFs and aconservedandconsistently translated subset of non-AUG initiated uORFs correlateswith repressed CDS translation. Ribosomal protein transcripts are enriched in uORFs, and select uORFs on such transcripts were validated for expression. Withneuronal differentiation, we observedan overall positive correlation between translational shifts in uORF/CDSpairs. However,a subset of transcripts exhibit inverse shifts in translation of uORF/CDSpairs. TheseuORFsare enriched in AUG initiation sites, non-overlapping, and shorterin length. Cumulatively, CDSs downstream of uORFs characterized by persistent translation show smaller shifts in TE withneuronal differentiation relative to CDSs without a predicted uORF, suggesting that fluctuations in CDS translation are buffered by uORF translation. In sum, this work provides insights into the dynamic relationshipsand potential regulatory functionsof uORF/CDS pairs in a model of neuronal differentiation. Overall design: Examination of upstream open reading frame dependent translation regulation across non-differentiated and RA-differentiated SH-SY5Y cells
Project description:So far, the annotation of translation initiation sites (TISs) has been based mostly upon bioinformatics rather than experimental evidence. We adapted ribosomal footprinting to puromycin-treated cells to generate a transcriptome-wide map of TISs in a human monocytic cell line. A neural network was trained on the ribosomal footprints at previously annotated AUG translation initiation codons (TICs), and used for the ab initio prediction of TISs in 5062 transcripts with sufficient sequence coverage. Functional interpretation suggested 2994 novel upstream open reading frames (uORFs) in the 5´ UTR (924 AUG, 2070 near-cognate codons), 1406 uORFs overlapping with the coding sequence (116 AUG, 1290 near-cognate) and 546 N-terminal protein extensions (6 AUG, 540 near-cognate). The TIS detection method was validated on the basis of previously published alternative TISs and uORFs. On average, TICs in newly annotated TISs were significantly more conserved among primates than control codons, both for AUGs (p<10-10) and near-cognate codons (p=3.8×10-3). The derived transcriptome-wide map of novel candidate TISs will help to explain how human proteome diversity is influenced by alternative translation initiation and regulation. Overall design: Examination of translational initiation in human cell lines using ribosomal footprinting
Project description:Ribosome profiling and high-throughput sequencing provide unprecedented opportunities for the analysis of mRNA translation. Using this novel method, several studies have demonstrated the widespread role of short upstream reading frames in translational control as well as slower elongation at the beginning of open reading frames in response to stress. Based on the initial studies, the importance of adding or omitting translation inhibitors, such as cycloheximide, was noted as it markedly affected ribosome coverage profiles. For that reason, many recent studies omitted translation inhibitors in the culture medium. Here, we investigate the influence of ranging cycloheximide concentrations on ribosome profiles in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and demonstrate that increasing the drug concentration can overcome some of the artifacts. We subjected cells to various manipulations and show that neither oxidative stress nor heat shock nor amino acid starvation affect translation elongation. Instead, the observations in the initial studies are the result of cycloheximide-inflicted artifacts. Likewise, we find little support for short upstream reading frames to be involved in wide-spread protein synthesis regulation under stress conditions. Our study highlights the need for better standardization of ribosome profiling methods. Ranging concentrations of cycloheximide and various stress contitions were tested with Ribo-seq