Expression profile of osteoclasts treated with bisphosphonates
ABSTRACT: Bisphosphonates are the mainstay of therapy worldwide for osteoporosis. They inhibit the activities of the osteoclasts, the bone resorption cells. While bisphosphonates are known to block farnesyl pyrophsophate synthase to exert their anti-resorptive action, the detailed mechanism is not well understood. Examining the change in expression profile before and after bisphosphonate treatment in the osteoclasts might shed some light on the biological pathways that are perturbed. Osteoclastic precursor cells were treated with (or without) bisphosphonates (alendronate or risedronate) during their differentiation into mature osteoclasts.
Project description:Osteoclastogenesis is induced by the stimulation of RANKL. In the early stage of osteoclast differentiation, the osteoclast progenitor cells are primed by M-CSF, following a tightly controlled genetic program where specific sets of genes are up-regulated by RANKL. Some of them, for instance, control differentiation, cell-cell fusion and bone resorption. We used microarrays to detail the global program of gene expression underlying osteoclastogenesis and identified various up-regulated genes during this process. Macrophages and osteoclasts were cultured for RNA extraction and hybridization on Affymetrix microarrays. We sought to obtain homogeneous populations of macrophages and osteoclasts in order to increase the temporal resolution of expression profiles. To that end, mouse bone marrow cells were cultured in the presence of M-CSF for three days and harvested as macrophage and oseteoclast common progenitor cells. Then common progenitor cells were further cultured in the presence of M-CSF alone for macrophages and M-CSF plus RANKL for osteoclasts, respectively.
Project description:The hormone calcitonin (CT) is primarily known for its pharmacologic action as an inhibitor of bone resorption, yet CT-deficient mice display increased bone formation. These findings raised the question about the underlying cellular and molecular mechanism of CT action. Here we show that either ubiquitous or osteoclast-specific inactivation of the murine CT receptor (CTR) causes increased bone formation. CT negatively regulates the osteoclast expression of Spns2 gene, which encodes a transporter for the signaling lipid sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P). CTR-deficient mice show increased S1P levels, and their skeletal phenotype is normalized by deletion of the S1P receptor S1P3. Finally, pharmacologic treatment with the non-selective S1P receptor agonist FTY720 causes increased bone formation in wildtype, but not in S1P3-deficient mice. This study redefines the role of CT in skeletal biology, confirms that S1P acts as an osteoanabolic molecule in vivo, and provides evidence for a pharmacologically exploitable crosstalk between osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Osteoclasts of wildtype and Calcr-/- C57Bl/6 mice were treated with Calcitonin and compared to the non-treated osteoclasts of wildtype or Calcr-/- mice, respectively.
Project description:Transcriptional profiling of mouse osteoclasts comparing control osteoclasts from Stat5 flox mice with osteoclasts from Stat5 cKO mice. Two-condition experiment, Stat5 flox cells vs. Stat5 cKO cells
Project description:Estrogen clearly prevents osteoporotic bone loss by attenuating bone resorption. The molecular basis of how this is accomplished, however, remains elusive. Here we report a critical role of osteoclastic ERa in mediating estrogen action on bone in females. We selectively ablated ERa in differentiated osteoclasts (ERa dOc/dOc). ERa dOc/dOc females, but not males, exhibited clear trabecular bone loss, similar to the osteoporotic bone phenotype in post-menopausal women. Recovery of bone loss by estrogen treatment of the ovariectomized ERa dOc/dOc females was ineffective in the trabecular areas of the long bones and lumbar vertebral bodies. Osteoclastic apoptosis, induced by estrogen, occurred simultaneously with up-regulation of Fas ligand (FasL) expression in intact trabecular bones of ERa +/+mice, but not in ERa dOc/dOc mice. ERa was also required for similar effects of estrogen and tamoxifen in cultured osteoclasts. These findings suggest that the osteoprotective actions of estrogen and SERMS are mediated at least in part through osteoclastic ERa in trabecular bone; and the life span of mature osteoclasts is regulated through activation of the Fas/FasL system. Experiment Overall Design: Wild type and osteoclast-specific Estrogen Receptor alpha knock-out mice were ovariectomized. The number of both genotypes of mice was eight. The mice of each genotypes were divided to vehicle control and estrogen treated group. Four hours after chemical treatment, the distal 5 mm of the left femurs were harvested after sacrificing by cervical dislocation and total RNAs were purified for Affymetix GeneChip microarray analysis without pooling. Therefore, this experiment consists of four groups with four replicates per group.
Project description:Epigenetic regulation is a fundamental mechanism mediating various cellular processes. However, epigenetic mechanisms in osteoclastogenesis remain to be elucidated. We performed MBD-seq analysis to investigate DNA methylation in osteoclasts derived from wild-type and osteoclast-specific Dnmt3a knockout mice. Examination of DNA methylation in 2 cell types.
Project description:Bone remodeling is characterized by the sequential, local tethering of osteoclasts and osteoblasts, and is key to the maintenance of bone integrity. While bone matrix-mobilized growth factors, such as TGF-β, are proposed to regulate remodeling, no in vivo evidence exists that an osteoclast-produced molecule is the enigmatic coupling factor. We have identified Cthrc1, a protein secreted by mature bone-resorbing osteoclasts, that targets stromal cells so as to stimulate osteogenesis. The expression of Cthrc1 is robustly induced when mature osteoclasts are placed on dentin or hydroxyapatite, and also by increasing extracellular calcium. Cthrc1 expression in bone increases in a high turnover state, such as that which is induced by RANKL injections in vivo, whereas it decreases with aging or following alendronate treatment, conditions associated with suppressed bone turnover. The targeted deletion of the Cthrc1 gene eliminates Cthrc1 expression in bone, whereas its deficiency in osteoblasts does not exert any significant effect. Osteoclast-specific deletion of the Cthrc1 gene results in osteopenia due to reduced bone formation: it also impairs the coupling process following resorption induced by RANKL injections, with a resultant impairment of bone mass recovery. Thus, Cthrc1 is an osteoclast-secreted “coupling factor” that regulates bone remodeling and hence, skeletal integrity. Total bone marrow cells were prepared from the femurs and tibias of 8-10-week-old C57BL/6 mice and cultured in the presence of M-CSF (100ng/ml) for 3 days as described previously (Takeshita et al., 2000 JBMR 15:1477-1488). Cells were harvested with 0.02% EDTA/PBS and used as bone marrow macrophages (BMMs). These BMMs were cultured in the presence of M-CSF (100 ng/ml) and RANKL (100ng/ml) for 2 days. TRAP positive mononuclear cells were harvested and used as pre-osteoclasts (pOC). These pOC cells were further cultured in the presence of M-CSF and RANKL for 2 days in normal plastic plate or on dentin slices. After 2 days, multinucleated TRAP positive mature osteoclasts were generated as mature osteoclasts on plate (mOCp) and mature resorbing osteoclasts on dentin (mOCd), respectively. RNAs were extracted from four different stages of osteoclast lineage cells; BMMs, pOC, mOCp and mOCd, and used for microarray analysis.
Project description:Genetic deletion of Nfatc1 in mice results in profound osteoclast-poor osteopetrosis, a high bone mass state caused by a lack of osteoclast activity. We hypothesized that the family of NFATc1 regulated transcripts in the osteoclast would be enriched for genes associated with osteoclast function. We used microarrays profile gene expression in wild-type and NFATc1-deficient osteoclasts generated in vitro to identify NFATc1-dependent transcripts in osteoclasts. Bone marrow macrophages from wild-type and mice with an induced deficiency of NFATc1 (NFATc1 fl/fl MxCre+ mice where NFATc1 excision was induced by polyIC treatment) were cultured ex vivo in MCSF and RANKL for 3 days. 2 biological replicates were assayed for each genotype.
Project description:To identify the microRNAs that are involved in osteoclastogenesis, microRNA expression profiles in mouse bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) stimulated with RANKL (BMOc) were compared with that of control untreated BMMs. These results provide insights into the mechanisms to regulate osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption activities in osteoclasts by microRNA. BMMs were cultured with 20 ng/ml M-CSF in the presence or absence of 50 ng/ml RANKL for 24 hours. Cells were collected for total RNA isolation, and were subjected to microRNA array analysis.
Project description:Comparison of gene expression of the osteoclast precursor myeloid blast seeded on plastic and on bone, primed with M-CSF for 4 days and culture with M-CSF and RANKL for 1 day. Osteoclasts and macrophages share progenitors that must receive decisive lineage signals driving them into their respective differentiation routes. Macrophage colony stimulation factor M-CSF is a common factor; bone is likely the stimulus for osteoclast differentiation. To elucidate the effect of both, shared mouse bone marrow precursor myeloid blast was pre-cultured with M-CSF on plastic and on bone. M-CSF priming prior to stimulation with M-CSF and osteoclast differentiation factor RANKL resulted in a complete loss of osteoclastogenic potential without bone. This coincided with a steeply decreased expression of osteoclast genes TRACP and DC-STAMP, but an increased expression of the macrophage markers F4/80 and CD11b. Compellingly, M-CSF priming on bone accelerated the osteoclastogenic potential: M-CSF primed cells that had received only one day M-CSF and RANKL and were grown on bone already expressed an array of genes that are associated with osteoclast differentiation and these cells differentiated into osteoclasts within 2 days. This implies that adhesion to bone dictates the fate of osteoclast precursors. Common macrophage-osteoclast precursors may become insensitive to differentiate into osteoclasts and regain osteoclastogenesis when bound to bone or when in the vicinity of bone. Two conditions: Osteoclast precursors on plastic and on bone, n=4, dye swap
Project description:Bone marrow derived cells stimulated with RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand, also known as Tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 11) to generate osteoclasts.