Global transcriptional analysis of Campylobacter jejuni NCTC 11168 in response to epinephrine and norepinephrine.
ABSTRACT: During colonization in the host gastrointestinal tract, the enteric bacteria Campylobacter jejuni is exposed to a variety of signaling molecules including the catecholamine hormones epinephrine (Epi) and norepinephrine (NE). NE has been determined to stimulate the growth of C. jejuni as well as increase its pathogenicity. To investigate the mechanisms of NE or Epi on the biology of C. jejuni, the global gene expression profiles of C. jejuni NCTC 11168 cultured in iron-restricted medium were analyzed in response to NE or Epi. Totally, 183 and 156 genes were differentially expressed by NE and Epi respectively, with 102 differentially expressed genes common between the two treatments. These genes are involved in diverse cellular functions including iron uptake systems, motility, virulence, oxidative stress response, nitrosative stress tolerance, enzyme metabolism, DNA repair and metabolism and ribosomal protein biosynthesis. Adherence to and invasion of Caco-2 cells by C. jejuni were enhanced upon exposure to NE or Epi. These results indicated that NE and Epi have similar effects on the gene expression of C. jejuni and that the effects on gene expression may contribute to elucidate the mechanisms on interaction between host and C. jejuni. Transcriptional profiles were analyzed using microarray to compared the epinephrine (Epi) or norepinephrine (NE) treated and untreated Campylobacter jejuni NCTC 11168. NE or Epi treated and untreated cultures of C. jejuni NCTC 11168 were collected at the mid-log phase (～36 h cultures). Three (for NE or Epi treated culture) or four (for untreated control culture) independent biological replicates were performed. Total RNA was extracted using RiboPure™-Bacteria Kit (Ambion, Life Technologies) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. The quality and quantity of total RNA were determined by an Agilent Bioanalyzer 2100. Total RNA was amplified and labeled by Low Input Quick Amp Labeling Kit, One-Color, following the manufacturer’s instructions. Labeled cRNA were purified by RNeasy mini kit (QIAGEN, GmBH, Germany). Each Slide was hybridized with 600ng Cy3-labeled cRNA using Gene Expression Hybridization Kit (Agilent technologies, Santa Clara, CA, US) in Hybridization Oven, according to the manufacturer’s instructions. After 17 hours hybridization, slides were washed in staining dishes with Gene Expression Wash Buffer Kit (Agilent technologies, Santa Clara, CA, US), followed the manufacturer’s instructions. Slides were scanned by Agilent Microarray Scanner with default settings, Dye channel: Green, Scan resolution=5μm, PMT 100%, 10%, 16bit. Data were extracted with Feature Extraction software 10.7. Raw data were normalized by Quantile algorithm, Gene Spring Software 11.0. The genes with fold change ≥ 1.5 and P < 0.05 were selected as differentially expressed.
Project description:Upon colonization in the host gastrointestinal tract, the enteric bacterial pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is exposed to a variety of signaling molecules including the catecholamine hormones epinephrine (Epi) and norepinephrine (NE). NE has been observed to stimulate the growth and potentially enhance the pathogenicity of C. jejuni. However, the underlying mechanisms are still largely unknown. In this study, both Epi and NE were also observed to promote C. jejuni growth in MEMα-based iron-restricted medium. Adhesion and invasion of Caco-2 cells by C. jejuni were also enhanced upon exposure to Epi or NE. To further examine the effect of Epi or NE on the pathobiology of C. jejuni, transcriptomic profiles were conducted for C. jejuni NCTC 11168 that was cultured in iron-restricted medium supplemented with Epi or NE. Compared to the genes expressed in the absence of the catecholamine hormones, 183 and 156 genes were differentially expressed in C. jejuni NCTC 11168 that was grown in the presence of Epi and NE, respectively. Of these differentially expressed genes, 102 genes were common for both Epi and NE treatments. The genes differentially expressed by Epi or NE are involved in diverse cellular functions including iron uptake, motility, virulence, oxidative stress response, nitrosative stress tolerance, enzyme metabolism, DNA repair and metabolism and ribosomal protein biosynthesis. The transcriptome analysis indicated that Epi and NE have similar effects on the gene expression of C. jejuni, and provided insights into the delicate interaction between C. jejuni and intestinal stress hormones in the host.
Project description:We report the use of RNA-seq analysis for the determination of RPKM transcript levels in wildtype and fur perR mutant of Campylobacter jejuni NCTC 11168. This allows for comparison of gene expression levels. Campylobacter jejuni NCTC 11168 wildtype and fur perR mutant were grown to late log phase, RNA was purified and used for RNA-sequencing by Illumina HiSeq sequencing
Project description:We report the use of differential RNA-sequencing for the determination of the primary transcriptome of the fur perR mutant of Campylobacter jejuni NCTC 11168. This allows for the genome-wide determination of transcription start sites. Campylobacter jejuni NCTC 11168 fur perR mutant was grown to late log phase, RNA was purified and used for differential RNA-sequencing by 454 sequencing with barcoded libraries, and used for determination of genome-wide transcription start sites
Project description:Erythromycin is the drug of choice to treat campylobacteriosis, but resistance to this antibiotic is rising. The adaptive mechanisms employed by Campylobacter jejuni to erythromycin treatment remain unknown. The aim of this study is to determine the molecular basis underlying Campylobacter’s immediate response to Ery treatment. The design utilized an available two color microarray slide for the entire transcriptome of Campylobacter jejuni wild type strain NCTC 11168. One hybridizations were performed: sham-treated NCTC 11168 v.s. lethal dose erythromycin treated NCTC 11168. Samples were independently grown and harvested. There were three biological replicates of each sample.
Project description:Erythromycin is the drug of choice to treat campylobacteriosis, but resistance to this antibiotic is rising. The adaptive mechanisms employed by Campylobacter jejuni to erythromycin treatment remain unknown. The aim of this study is to determine the molecular basis underlying Campylobacter’s immediate response to Ery treatment. The design utilized an available two color microarray slide for the entire transcriptome of Campylobacter jejuni wild type strain NCTC 11168. One hybridizations were performed: sham-treated NCTC 11168 v.s. sub-lethal dose erythromycin treated NCTC 11168. Samples were independently grown and harvested. There were three biological replicates of each sample.
Project description:Strain specific growth of C. jejuni on fucose has been linked to a plasticity region of the chromosome (PR2) and confers a competitive advantage during intestinal colonization. Growth on fucose induces gene expression of PR2 genes, but the regulatory mechanism of the structural genes involved with fucose utilization is unknown. Additionally, the mechanism of fucose dissimilation by C. jejuni is not known since no fucose catabolism homologs are found in the C. jejuni genome. Transcriptional profiles of C. jejuni grown with and without fucose may provide insight in to the genes that are necessary for fucose utilization. The design utilized an available two color microarray slide for the entire transcriptome of Campylobacter jejuni wild type strain NCTC 11168. Each sample represents one competitive hybridization: sham-treated NCTC 11168 v.s. 25mM fucose treated NCTC 11168. There were four biological replicates of each sample with a dye swap introduced in alternating replicates. Samples were independently grown, treated and harvested.
Project description:Objectives: The aim of the study was to characterize (-)-α-Pinene, which is one of the chemical constituents of Alpinia katsumadai seed essential oil responsible for its resistance modulatory activity in Campylobacter jejuni. Methods: Broth microdilution method was used to evaluate the antimicrobial and resistance modulatory potential of (-)-α-Pinene and ethidium bromide accumulation assay to determine its efflux-inhibitory activity in subinhibitory concentration. The target efflux system was identified using knock-out mutants in several efflux related genes. Furthermore, the influence of subinhibitory concentration of (-)-α-Pinene on C. jejuni NCTC 11168 was investigated using microarray technology in order to elucidate the adaptive mechanism of bacteria to treatment with this phytochemical. Knock-out mutants of key adaptation genes were constructed and their role in adaptation to several stress factors, including (-)-α-Pinene, different osmolites and pH, was investigated using Biolog phenotypical microarrays and CFU counts. Results: (-)-α-Pinene was confirmed as highly efficient Campylobacter jejuni resistance modulator, due to its efflux inhibitory activity, which was significantly higher compared to reference inhibitors CCCP and reserpine. The CmeABC along with newly characterized CmeI (Cj1687) was confirmed as its main target efflux system. The transcriptional analysis indicated that the heat shock regulators HspR and HrcA are the main transcription regulators involved in adaptation to (-)-α-Pinene treatment. Conclusions: (-)-α-Pinene is a novel CmeABC and CmeI efflux inhibitor, which evokes the heat shock response in Campylobacter jejuni. Influence of (-)-α-Pinene on gene expression in C. jejuni NCTC 11168 was determined by expressional analysis and qRT-PCR. Exponential phase culture was adjusted to OD600=0.2 in MHB using spectrophotometer (Smart Spec, Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA, USA). Five ml of culture was treated with 62.5 mg/L of (-)-alpha-pinene dissolved in DMSO. Only DMSO (0.048 %) was added to untreated samples. Cultures were treated for 2 h, incubated microaerobically shaking (160 rpm) at 42°C. Experiments were carried out in 4 biological replicates. RNA Protect Bacteria reagent (Qiagen, Maryland, USA) was added to the culture and total RNA was isolated using RNeasy mini kit (Qiagen) and treated with Ambion® Turbo DNA-freeTM kit (Invitrogen, USA). Microarrays with 4751 probes targeting 1756 genes specific for Campylobacter jejuni subsp. jejuni NCTC 11168 (Mycroarray, Biodiscovery-LLC, MI, USA) were used for gene expression analysis. The cDNA was synthesized with random hexamers, SuperScriptTM III Reverse Transcriptase and amynoallyl dUTP (all supplied by Invitrogen, USA) and labeled with monofunctional NHS-ester dye Amersham C3 or Cy5 (GE Healthcare, Buckinghamshire, UK). Concentration of cDNA and labeling efficiency was determined spectrophotometrically with NanoDrop 1000. Four biological replicates were hybridized to four microarrays according to manufacturer’s protocol, incubated for 24 hours at 42⁰C and scanned at 532-nm (Cy3) and 635-nm (Cy5) wavelengths using GenePix 4100A (Molecular Devices, Sunnyvale, CA) following the manufacturer's protocol. Fluorescence intensities of each spot were extracted using GenePix Pro 7.0 (Molecular Devices).
Project description:The fastidious nature of the foodborne bacterial pathogen Campylobacter jejuni contrasts with its ability to survive in the food chain. The formation of biofilms, or the integration into existing biofilms by C. jejuni, is thought to contribute to food chain survival. As extracellular DNA (eDNA) has previously been proposed to play a role in C. jejuni biofilms, we have investigated the role of extracellular DNases (eDNases) produced by C. jejuni in biofilm formation. A search of 2791 C. jejuni genomes highlighted that almost half of C. jejuni genomes contains at least one eDNase gene, but only a minority of isolates contains two or three of these eDNase genes, such as C. jejuni strain RM1221 which contains the cje0256, cje0566 and cje1441 eDNase genes. Strain RM1221 did not form biofilms, whereas the eDNase-negative strains NCTC 11168 and 81116 did. Incubation of pre-formed biofilms of NCTC 11168 with live C. jejuni RM1221 or with spent medium from a RM1221 culture resulted in removal of the biofilm. Inactivation of the cje1441 eDNase gene in strain RM1221 restored biofilm formation, and made the mutant unable to degrade biofilms of strain NCTC 11168. Finally, C. jejuni strain RM1221 was able to degrade genomic DNA from C. jejuni NCTC 11168, 81116 and RM1221, whereas strain NCTC 11168 and the RM1221 cje1441 mutant were unable to do so. This was mirrored by an absence of eDNA in overnight cultures of C. jejuni RM1221. This suggests that the activity of eDNases in C. jejuni affects biofilm formation and is not conducive to a biofilm lifestyle. These eDNases do however have a potential role in controlling biofilm formation by C. jejuni strains in food chain relevant environments.
Project description:Transcriptional profiling of Campylobacter jejuni NCTC 11168 wild type and LuxS01 mutant strains comparing the effects of exogenously added in vitro-produced autoinducer 2 (AI-2) versus a control buffer to both strains. Two-condition experiment, addition of exogenous AI-2 to both the parent and mutant 11168 strains. Control microarrays included comparing 11168 with AI-2 free buffer vs 11168 with AI-2-free buffer and mutant with AI-2 free buffer versus mutant with AI-2 free buffer used for analyses. 3 biological replicates for each, independently grown and harvested.
Project description:Campylobacter jejuni GB11, a strain isolated from a patient with Guillain-Barré syndrome, has been shown to be genetically closely related to the completely sequenced strain C. jejuni NCTC 11168 by various molecular typing and serotyping methods. However, we observed that the lipooligosaccharide (LOS) biosynthesis genes strongly diverged between GB11 and NCTC 11168. We sequenced the LOS biosynthesis locus of GB11 and found that it was nearly identical to the class A LOS locus from the C. jejuni HS:19 Penner serotype strain (ATCC 43446). Analysis of the DNA sequencing data showed that a horizontal exchange event involving at least 14.26 kb had occurred in the LOS biosynthesis locus of GB11 between galE (Cj1131c in NCTC 11168) and gmhA (Cj1149 in NCTC 11168). Mass spectrometry of the GB11 LOS showed that GB11 expressed an LOS outer core that mimicked the carbohydrate portion of the gangliosides GM1a and GD1a, similar to C. jejuni ATCC 43446. The serum from the GB11-infected patient was shown to react with the LOS from both GB11 and ATCC 43446 but not with that from NCTC 11168. These data indicate that the antiganglioside response in the GB11-infected patient was raised against the structures synthesized by the acquired class A LOS locus.