Transient Pairing of Homologous Oct4 Alleles Accompanies the Onset of Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation
ABSTRACT: The relationship between chromatin organization and transcriptional regulation is an area of intense investigation. We have characterized the spatial relationships between alleles of the Oct4, Sox2, and Nanog genes in single cells during the earliest stages of mouse embryonic stem cell (ESC) differentiation and during embryonic development. We describe homologous pairing of the Oct4 alleles during ESC differentiation and embryogenesis, and present evidence that pairing is correlated with the kinetics of ESC differentiation. Importantly, we identify critical DNA elements within the Oct4 promoter/enhancer region that mediate pairing of Oct4 alleles. Finally, we show that mutation of OCT4/SOX2 binding sites within this region abolishes inter-chromosomal interactions and affects accumulation of the repressive H3K9me2 modification at the Oct4 enhancer. Our findings demonstrate that chromatin organization and transcriptional programs are intimately connected in ESCs, and that the dynamic positioning of the Oct4 alleles is associated with the transition from pluripotency to lineage specification. Examination of chromatin contacts between Oct4 alleles using PE-4Cseq
Project description:In this experiment, we've examined chromatin conformation of OG2 (B6; CBA-Tg(Pou5f1-EGFP)2Mnn/J; stock number 004654) mouse stem cells cultured as described in (Shi et al., 2008), using different amounts of starting cells. We performed a modified in situ Hi-C protocol for 6 samples digested with MboI restriction enzyme having as starting material 1 million (M), 100 thousand (k), 50k, 25k, 10k or 1k cells. As well as, to 2 samples digested with HindIII restriction enzyme that had as starting material 5M or 100k cells. Traditional in situ Hi-C protocols recommend 5-10 million starting cells. The aim of the experiment was to assess the impact of decreasing the cell number on reproducibility, library complexity, chromatin structure visualization in order to adapt the method to the study of rare cell populations. Furthermore, we have characterised the 3D structure of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from a blood extraction from a healthy donor and from a lymph node biopsy from a DLBCL patient as a proof of concept for the suitability of Low-C for rare cell population analysis.
Project description:The three-dimensional organization of chromatin has a critical impact on the regulation of gene expression. However, little is known about the effect of DNA copy number variants (CNVs) on chromatin organization. We performed an allele-specific chromatin conformation and gene expression analysis of wild-type (WT) mouse chromosome 4 and an engineered 4.3Mb chromosome 4 deletion in mouse embryonic fibroblasts. A newly developed quantitative framework for the analysis of paired-end 4C-seq data revealed a number of significant differentially interacting regions (DIRs) and higher-order chromatin compaction changes present in the deletion chromosome. Selected DIRs were validated by 3D DNA FISH experiments. We discovered a significant enrichment of CTCF and Smc1 binding sites within DIRs, as well as differentially expressed genes determined by RNA-Seq. Together, our findings highlight the complex effects of a 4E2 CNV on chromatin structure and function, both locally in the deletion chromosome and globally in the WT copy. Examination of chromatin contacts and gene expression in wild type chromosome 4 and a 4.3Mb deletion in chromosome 4 in mouse
Project description:The relationship between chromatin organization and transcriptional regulation is an area of intense investigation. We characterized the spatial relationships between alleles of the Oct4, Sox2, and Nanog genes in single cells during the earliest stages of mouse embryonic stem cell (ESC) differentiation and during embryonic development. We describe homologous pairing of the Oct4 alleles during ESC differentiation and embryogenesis, and we present evidence that pairing is correlated with the kinetics of ESC differentiation. Importantly, we identify critical DNA elements within the Oct4 promoter/enhancer region that mediate pairing of Oct4 alleles. Finally, we show that mutation of OCT4/SOX2 binding sites within this region abolishes inter-chromosomal interactions and affects accumulation of the repressive H3K9me2 modification at the Oct4 enhancer. Our findings demonstrate that chromatin organization and transcriptional programs are intimately connected in ESCs and that the dynamic positioning of the Oct4 alleles is associated with the transition from pluripotency to lineage specification.
Project description:We examined the allelic expression and positioning of two pluripotency-associated genes, OCT4 and SOX2, and two housekeeping genes, ACTB and TUBA, in 4- and 8-cell porcine embryos utilizing RNA and DNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in single blastomeres. The proportion of blastomeres expressing SOX2 bi-allelically increased from 45% at the 4-cell stage to 60% at the 8-cell stage. Moreover, in 8-cell embryos, SOX2 was expressed bi-allelically in significantly more blastomeres than was the case for OCT4, and this was associated with a tendency for SOX2 alleles to move toward the nuclear interior during 4- to 8-cell transition. However, the radial location of OCT4 alleles did not change significantly during this transition. The locations of active and inactive alleles based on DNA and RNA FISH signals were also calculated. Inactive OCT4 alleles were located in very close proximity to the nuclear membrane, whereas active OCT4 alleles were more centrally disposed in the nucleus. Nevertheless, the nuclear location of active and inactive SOX2 alleles did not change in either 4- or 8-cell blastomeres. Our RNA and DNA FISH data provide novel information on the allelic expression patterns and positioning of pluripotency-associated genes, OCT4 and SOX2, during embryonic genome activation in pigs.
Project description:In this experiment, we've examined chromatin conformation differences of E14 mESC against cohesin and Ring1b degrons. We performed a modified in situ Hi-C protocol from (Rao et al., 2014) that can be found in detail at (Díaz et al., 2018). Samples were digested with MboI restriction enzyme. The aim of the experiment was to characterize the role of cohesin and polycomb on the 3D structure of mouse chromatin.
Project description:Oct4 is a widely recognized pluripotency factor as it maintains Embryonic Stem (ES) cells in a pluripotent state, and, in vivo, prevents the inner cell mass (ICM) in murine embryos from differentiating into trophectoderm. However, its function in somatic tissue after this developmental stage is not well characterized. Using a tamoxifen-inducible Cre recombinase and floxed alleles of Oct4, we investigated the effect of depleting Oct4 in mouse embryos between the pre-streak and headfold stages, ~E6.0-E8.0, when Oct4 is found in dynamic patterns throughout the embryonic compartment of the mouse egg cylinder. We found that depletion of Oct4 ~E7.5 resulted in a severe phenotype, comprised of craniorachischisis, random heart tube orientation, failed turning, defective somitogenesis and posterior truncation. Unlike in ES cells, depletion of the pluripotency factors Sox2 and Oct4 after E7.0 does not phenocopy, suggesting that ~E7.5 Oct4 is required within a network that is altered relative to the pluripotency network. Oct4 is not required in extraembryonic tissue for these processes, but is required to maintain cell viability in the embryo and normal proliferation within the primitive streak. Impaired expansion of the primitive streak occurs coincident with Oct4 depletion ?E7.5 and precedes deficient convergent extension which contributes to several aspects of the phenotype.
Project description:Background RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) is a powerful technique for identifying and quantifying transcription and splicing events, both known and novel. However, given its recent development and the proliferation of library construction methods, understanding the bias it introduces is incomplete but critical to realizing its value. Results Here we present a method, in vitro transcription sequencing (IVT-seq), for identifying and assessing the technical biases in RNA-seq library generation and sequencing at scale. We created a pool of > 1000 in vitro transcribed (IVT) RNAs from a full-length human cDNA library and sequenced them with poly-A and total RNA-seq, the most common protocols. Because each cDNA is full length and we show IVT is incredibly processive, each base in each transcript should be equivalently represented. However, with common RNA-seq applications and platforms, we find ~50% of transcripts have > 2-fold and ~10% have > 10-fold differences in within-transcript sequence coverage. Strikingly, we also find > 6% of transcripts have regions of high, unpredictable sequencing coverage, where the same transcript varies dramatically in coverage between samples, confounding accurate determination of their expression. To get at causal factors, we used a combination of experimental and computational approaches to show that rRNA depletion is responsible for the most significant variability in coverage and that several sequence determinants also strongly influence representation. Conclusions In sum, these results show the utility of IVT-seq in promoting better understanding of bias introduced by RNA-seq and suggest caution in its interpretation. Furthermore, we find that rRNA-depletion is responsible for substantial, unappreciated biases in coverage. Perhaps most importantly, these coverage biases introduced during library preparation suggest exon level expression analysis may be inadvisable. 5 rRNA-depleted samples with duplicates, 1 polyA selected, 1 total RNA, and 1 plasmid library all without replicates.
Project description:The unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 is a model system for studying biochemistry, genetics and molecular biology of photobiological processes. Despite its importance in basic and applied research, the genome-wide picture of transcriptional regulation in this bacterium is limited. Characteristic transcriptional responses to changes in the growth environment are expected to provide a scaffold for describing the Synechocystis transcriptional regulatory network as well as efficient means for functional annotation of genes in the genome. We designed, validated and used Synechocystis genome-wide oligonucleotide (70-mer) microarray (representing 96.7% of all chromosomal ORFs) to study transcriptional activity of the cyanobacterial genome in response to S deprivation. The microarray data were verified by quantitative RT-PCR. We made five main observations: 1) Transcriptional changes upon sulfate withdrawal were relatively moderate, but significant and consistent with growth kinetics; 2) S acquisition genes encoding for a high-affinity sulfate transporter were significantly induced, while decreased transcription of genes for phycobilisome, photosystems I and II, cytochrome b6/f, and ATP synthase indicated reduced light-harvesting and photosynthetic activity; 3) S deprivation elicited transcriptional responses associated with general growth arrest and stress; 4) A large number of genes regulated by S availability encode hypothetical proteins or proteins of unknown function; 5) Hydrogenase structural and maturation accessory genes were not identified as differentially expressed, even though increased hydrogen evolution was observed. The expression profiles recorded by using this oligonucleotide-based microarray platform revealed that during transition from the condition of plentiful sulfur to no sulfur, Synechocystis undergoes coordinated transcriptional changes, including genes whose products are involved in sensing nutrient limitations and tuning bacterial metabolism. The transcriptional profile of the nutrient limitation was dominated by decrease in abundances of many transcripts. However, these changes were unlikely due to the across-the-board, non-specific shut down of transcription in a condition of growth arrest. Down-regulation of transcripts encoding proteins whose function depends on a cellular sulfur status indicated that the observed repression has a specific regulatory component. The repression of certain sulfur-related genes was paralleled by activation of genes involved in internal and external S scavenging. Keywords: stress response, time course Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 was grown photoautotrophically in BG-11 medium supplemented with 8mM NaHCO3 and buffered with 10mM HEPES (pH 7.4). The cells were grown in 250ml flasks at 32oC under a light intensity of 25µmol photons m-2 s-1. Cultures were bubbled with sterile air containing 1% (v/v) CO2. Log phase cells (OD730nm=0.6) were harvested by centrifugation (2000×g for 12 min) washed once and then re-suspended in sulfate-free media (MgSO4 replaced by the same molarity of MgCl2). In addition, all S-containing trace metals in BG-11 were replaced by non-S containing metals. Cells were harvested and fixed for microarray analysis by adding 10% (v/v) ice-cold 5% phenol in ethanol stop solution at the following time points: before S-depravation (time 0, control), 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hr after S-depravation. S-deprivation with HEPES buffering control experiment was performed as described above, except that HEPES buffer was used upon sulfate removal. Bacterial samples for a time course were taken at time 0, 1, 12 and 24 hrs after sulfate withdrawal. Growth stage control experiment was done in parallel with S deprivation experiments. Samples were taken at 0, 1, 2.5, 4, 7, 11 and 48 hr after OD730nm reached 0.60. All the experiments were done in biological replicates.
Project description:An ability to sense and respond to changes in extracellular phosphate is critical to the survival of most bacteria. For Caulobacter crescentus, which typically lives in phosphate-limited environments, this process is especially crucial. Like many bacteria, Caulobacter responds to phosphate limitation through a conserved two-component signaling pathway called PhoR-PhoB, but the direct regulon of PhoB in this organism is unknown. Here, we use ChIP-Seq to map the global binding patterns of the phosphate-responsive transcriptional regulator PhoB in both phosphate-limited and -replete conditions. Combined with genome-wide expression profiling, our work demonstrates that PhoB is induced to regulate nearly 50 genes in phosphate-starved conditions. The PhoB regulon is comprised primarily of genes known or predicted to help Caulobacter scavenge for and import inorganic phosphate, including 15 different membrane transporters. We also investigated the regulatory role of PhoU, a widely conserved protein proposed to coordinate phosphate import with expression of the PhoB regulon by directly modulating the histidine kinase PhoR. However, our studies show that it likely does not play such a role in Caulobacter as depleting PhoU has no significant effect on PhoB-dependent gene expression. Instead, cells lacking PhoU exhibit a striking accumulation of large polyphosphate granules suggesting that PhoU participates in controlling intracellular phosphate metabolism. An allele of phoB bearing a C-terminal 3x-flag tag was integrated at its native locus, and ChIP followed by deep sequencing on Illumina MiSeq was performed on samples grown in rich medium, phosphate-limited medium, and in a pstS::Tn5 mutant background in rich medium.