Transcriptome analyses of skeletal muscle in αB-crystallin/HspB2 knockout and wild-type mice on a normal or high fat diet
ABSTRACT: We profiled the skeletal muscle transcriptome between wild type and αB-crystallin/HspB2 knock mice exposed to normal chow and high fat diets to examine the role of αB-crystallin/HspB2 in diet induced obesity. Combined with metabolic profiling of the mice, these data reveal that αB-crystallin/HspB2 is involved in the genesis of insulin resistance on a high fat diet, and we provide extensive RNA profiling to illuminate potential mechanistic insights into the muscle-specific role of αB-crystallin/HspB2. Hind limb muscle mRNA profiles of wild type and αB-crystallin/HspB2 knock mice exposed to either normal chow or high fat diets using RNAseq analysis
Project description:Purpose: Aim of the study is to identify changes in hepatic gene expression induced by either a 40kcal% coconut oil rich high fat diet (HFD), a 40kcal% soybean oil plus coconut oil high fat diet (SO-HFD) or a low fat vivarium chow diet (Viv). Methods: Livers from mice that had been fed one of the above mentioned diets for 35 weeks, were used to make cDNA libraries that were then sent for deep sequencing, using the Illumina TruSeq RNA. Result: Many genes involved in metabolism, lipid binding, transport and storage and many Cyp genes are dysregulated in the two high fat diets as compared to Viv HFDs in SO-HFD mice. Comparing the two HFDs shows more metabolism and disease related genes dysregulated in SO-HFD vs HFD. Conclusion: A diet high in soybean oil may be more detrimental to metabolic health than a diet high in saturated fats. cDNA isolated from livers from mice fed HFD, SO-HFD or Viv for 35 weeks, were 50bp pair-ended sequenced in triplicate using Illumina TruSeq RNA Sample Prep v2 Kit.
Project description:Xbp1 is an important regulator of unfolded protein response and lipid metabolism. Its dyregulation has been associcated in human NASH. Feeding a high fat diet with fructose/sucrose to mice causes progressive, fibrosing steatohepatitis. This study is to use RNA-Seq to identify differentially expressed genes in hepatic Xbp1 deficient mice livers fed with a high fat diet compared to controls. Hepatic Xbp1 deficient mice or flox controls were fed either regular chow or a high fat diet (n=4). Samples from each cohort were pooled into two replicates.
Project description:High grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) can originate from fallopian tube epithelium (FTE) and ovarian surface epithelium (OSE). We report the application of unique spontaneous model that mimics cellular aging for understanding the origin and progression of HGSOC from oviductal epithelium. Oviductal epithelium is equivalent to human FTE. Serial passaging of the outbred mouse CD1 oviductal cells (MOE low) to MOE high produced transformed cells that lead to benign tumors. To understand the altered molecular signaling pathways in MOEhigh cells versus MOElow cells, we performed RNA sequencing. Total RNA was extracted from MOELOW (passages 8, 9, & 10) and MOEHIGH (passages 90, 103, & 113) cells. Each total RNA sample had ribosomal RNA removed using TruSeq Stranded Total RNA with Ribo-Zero (Illumina, San Diego, CA). Strand-specific libraries were constructed and quantitated using Qubit, and cDNAs verified by qPCR. qRT–PCR validation was performed using SYBR Green assays. Samples were barcoded and sequenced using Illumina HiSeq2500 sequencing. The reads were aligned to the Mus musculus genome (mm10) using TopHat, version and were used to determine the expression of known mmu10 gene annotations from the University of California-Santa Cruz website using Cuffdiff version. By merging the individual transcript from Cuffdiff into a single gene annotation file, we determined the differential expression analysis. By applying a false discovery rate (FDR)-adjusted p-value, where significance was set to p ≤ 0.05, statistically significant differential expression was determined. Furthermore, pathway analysis was performed on transcript lists from both cell lines using GeneCoDis to identify the KEGG and Panther pathways that are significantly different between MOELOW and MOEHIGH cell lines. We find that the splicesome, RNA transport, the cell cycle, and DNA replication were the most highly upregulated pathway whereas the repressed pathways included processing in the endoplasmic reticulum, focal adhesion, and the lysosome. RNA sequencing revealed that p53 in MOELOW and MOEHIGH cells was not mutated; however, MOEHIGH cells had a significant upregulation of a splice variant of p53. The splice variant behaved like wild-type on few targets and missense on some transcriptional targets by qRT-PCR. This study provides a framework for the application of comprehensive chromatin profiling towards characterization of diverse mammalian cell populations. This model provides a framework to uncover a step-wise progression of tumor formation from an oviductal origin to be compared to human disease. Examination of altered molecular signaling pathways in 2 cell types.
Project description:The fallopian tube epithelium is one of the potential sources of high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC). The use of estrogen only hormone replacement therapy increases ovarian cancer risk. Despite estrogen’s influence in OVCA, selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) typically demonstrate only a 20% response rate. This low response could be due to a variety of factors including the loss of estrogen receptor signaling or the role of estrogen receptor signaling in different potential cell types of origin. The response of fallopian tube epithelium to SERMs is not known, and would be useful when determining therapeutic options for tumors that arise from this cell type, such as high-grade serous cancer. Using normal murine derived oviductal epithelial cells (mouse equivalent to the fallopian tube) estrogen receptor expression was confirmed and interaction with its ligand, estradiol, triggered mRNA and protein induction of progesterone receptor (PR). The SERMs 4-hydroxytamoxifen, raloxifene and desmethylarzoxifene, functioned as estrogen receptor antagonists in the oviductal cells. Cellular proliferation and migration assays suggested that estradiol does not significantly impact cellular migration and increased proliferation in CD1, but not in FVB derived cell lines. Further, using RNAseq, the oviduct specific transcriptional genes targets of estrogen and 4-hydroxytamoxifen signaling were determined and validated. The RNA-seq revealed enrichment in proliferation, anti-apoptosis, calcium signaling and steroid signaling processes. Finally, the ER and PR receptor status of a panel of HGSC cell lines was investigated highlighting the need for better models of estrogen responsive HGSC cell lines. Murine oviductal epithelial cells from the FVB background were hormone starved for 48 hours (with a media change after 24 hours), then treated in triplicate with solvent control (DMSO) (0.1%), 1 nM 17-betaestradiol or 100 nM 4-hydroxytamoxifen for 24 hours. Following treatment, RNA was was isolated, libraries were prepped and sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform.
Project description:The short chain fatty acid (SCFA) receptor (free fatty acid receptor-3; FFAR3) is expressed in pancreatic beta cells; however, its role in insulin secretion is not clearly defined. Here, we examined the role of FFAR3 in insulin secretion. Using islets from global knockout FFAR3 (Ffar3-/-) mice, we explored the role of FFAR3 and ligand-induced FFAR3 signaling on glucose stimulated insulin secretion. RNA sequencing was also performed to gain greater insight into the impact of FFAR3 deletion on the islet transcriptome. First exploring insulin secretion, it was determined that Ffar3-/- islets secrete more insulin in a glucose-dependent manner as compared to wildtype (WT) islets. Next, exploring its primary endogenous ligand, propionate, and a specific agonist for FFAR3, signaling by FFAR3 inhibited glucose-dependent insulin secretion, which occurred through a Gαi/o pathway. To help understand these results, transcriptome analyses by RNA-sequencing of Ffar3-/- and WT islets observed multiple genes with well known roles in islet biology to be altered by genetic knockout of FFAR3. Our data shows that FFAR3 signaling mediates glucose stimulated insulin secretion through Gαi/o sensitive pathway. Future studies are needed to more rigorously define the role of FFAR3 by in vivo approaches. Analysis of total RNA from 3 biological replicates of pancreatic islets isolated from free fatty acid receptor 3 knockout (Ffar3 KO) and wildtype (Ffar3 WT) male mice
Project description:Pre-B and pre-T lymphocytes must orchestrate a transition from a highly proliferative state to a quiescent one during development. Cyclin D3 is essential for these cells’ proliferation, but little is known about its post-translational regulation at this stage. Here, we show that the dual specificity tyrosine-regulated kinase 1A (DYRK1A) restrains Cyclin D3 protein levels by phosphorylating T283 to induce its degradation. Loss of DYRK1A activity, via genetic inactivation or pharmacologic inhibition, caused accumulation of Cyclin D3 protein, incomplete repression of E2F-mediated gene transcription, and failure to properly couple cell cycle exit with differentiation. Expression of a non-phosphorylatable Cyclin D3 T283A mutant recapitulated these defects, while inhibition of Cyclin D:CDK4/6 mitigated the effects of DYRK1A inhibition. These data uncover a previously unknown role for DYRK1A in lymphopoiesis, and demonstrate how Cyclin D3 protein stability is negatively regulated during exit from the proliferative phases of B and T cell development. 5 cell populations were analyzed (small pre-B cells, large pre-B cells, quiescent CD4+CD8+ thymocytes, cycling CD4+CD+ thymocytes, and mature granulocytes) from 2 Control mice (pooled) and 2 DYRK1A-deficient mice (pooled) for a total of 10 samples.
Project description:RNAseq analysis of gene expression in Liver of Control and JNK deficient mice fed a control or a High fat diet Contro(Albcre+)l and mice with liver-specific defiency of JNK (Alb Cre+ Jnk1flox/flox, Jnk2flox/flox or Jnk1flox/floxJnk2flox/flox) were fed a control or a high fat diet for 16 weeks. Gene expression analysis in liver was analyzed by RNAseq
Project description:Prolonged intervention studies investigating molecular metabolism are necessary for a deeper understanding of dietary effects on health. Here we provide mechanistic information about metabolic adaptation to fat-rich diets. Healthy men ingested saturated (SFA) or poly unsaturated (PUFA) fat-rich diets for six weeks during weight maintenance. Hyperinsulinemic clamps combined with leg balance technique revealed unchanged peripheral insulin sensitivity, independent of fatty acid type. Both diets increased fat oxidation potential in muscle. Hepatic insulin clearance increased, while glucose production, de novo lipogenesis and plasma triacylglycerol decreased. High fat intake changed the plasma proteome in immune-supporting direction and the gut microbiome displayed changes at taxonomical and functional level with PUFA. In mice, eucaloric feeding of human PUFA and SFA diets lowered hepatic triacylglycerol content compared to low-fat fed control mice, and induced adaptations in the liver supportive of decreased gluconeogenesis and lipogenesis. Intake of fat-rich diets thus induces extensive metabolic adaptations enabling disposition of dietary fat without metabolic complications.
Project description:Transcript data from quadriceps skeletal muscle from fasted-state male BXD strains on Quadriceps, Chow or Quadriceps, High fat diet We used microarrays to compare the skeletal muscle expression differences across males in the BXD strain family and across two diverse diets 29-week-old male mice were fasted overnight (6pm-9am), anesthetized under isoflurane, and perfused, then quadriceps were snap-frozen in liquid nitrogen for RNA extraction and RNEasy cleanup. Each dietary and strain cohort consisted of ~5 animals which were prepared independently then pooled evenly by µg RNA before the Affymetrix arrays were run.
Project description:Diet plays a crucial role in shaping human health and disease. Diets promoting obesity and insulin resistance can lead to severe metabolic diseases, while calorie-restricted (CR) diets can improve health and extend lifespan. In this work, we fed mice either a chow diet (CD), a 16 week high-fat diet (HFD), or a CR diet to compare and contrast the effects of these diets on mouse liver biology. We collected transcriptomic and epigenomic datasets from these mice using RNA-Seq and DNase-Seq. We found that both CR and HFD induce extensive transcriptional changes, in some cases altering the same genes in the same direction. We used our epigenomic data to infer transcriptional regulatory proteins bound near these genes that likely influence their expression levels. In particular, we found evidence for critical roles played by PPARα and RXRα. We used ChIP-Seq to profile the binding locations for these factors in HFD and CR livers. We found extensive binding of PPARα near genes involved in glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and uncovered a role for this factor in regulating anaerobic glycolysis. Overall, we generated extensive transcriptional and epigenomic datasets from livers of mice fed these diets and uncovered new functions and gene targets for PPARα. Overall design: RNA-seq analysis of mouse liver maintained on normal chow diet, high-fat diet or calorie restricted diet, ChIP-seq on RXRα and PPARα from mouse liver maintained on calorie restricted or high-fat diets, DNase-seq on mouse liver maintained on normal chow, high-fat, or calorie restricted diets.