A simple method for generating high-resolution maps of genome wide protein binding
ABSTRACT: Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and its derivatives are the main techniques used to determine transcription factor binding sites. However, conventional ChIP with sequencing (ChIP-seq) has problems with poor resolution and newer techniques require significant experimental alterations and complex bioinformatics. Here we build upon our high-resolution crosslinking ChIP-seq (X-ChIP-seq) method and compare it to existing methodologies. By using micrococcal nuclease, which has both endo- and exo-nuclease activity to fragment the chromatin and thereby generate precise protein-DNA footprints, high-resolution X-ChIP-seq achieves single base pair resolution of transcription factor binding. A significant advantage of this protocol is the minimal alteration to the conventional ChIP-seq workflow and simple bioinformatic processing. Using High-resolution X-ChIP-seq we determined the genome-wide binding profile of various DNA binding proteins.
Project description:Sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins including transcription factors (TFs) are key determinants of gene regulation and chromatin architecture. Formaldehyde cross-linking and sonication followed by Chromatin ImmunoPrecipitation (X-ChIP) and sequencing is widely used for genome-wide profiling of protein binding, but is limited by low resolution and poor specificity and sensitivity. We have implemented a simple genome-wide ChIP protocol that starts with micrococcal nuclease-digested uncross-linked chromatin followed by affinity purification and paired-end sequencing without size-selection. The resulting ORGANIC (Occupied Regions of Genomes from Affinity-purified Naturally Isolated Chromatin) profiles of the budding yeast TFs Abf1 and Reb1 achieved near-perfect accuracy, in contrast to other profiling methods, which were much less sensitive and specific. Unlike profiles produced using X-ChIP methods such as ChIP-exo, ORGANIC profiles are not biased toward identifying sites in accessible chromatin and do not require input normalization. We also demonstrate the high specificity of our method when applied to larger genomes by profiling Drosophila GAGA Factor and Pipsqueak. Taken together, these results suggest that ORGANIC profiling outperforms current X-ChIP methodologies for genome-wide profiling of TF binding sites. Chromatin immunoprecipitation of micrococcal nuclease-digested native chromatin followed by paired-end sequencing (Occupied Regions of Genomes from Affinity-purified Naturally Isolated Chromatin 'ORGANIC' profiling) of DNA-binding proteins Abf1 and Reb1 from S. cerevisiae and GAGA-binding factor (GAF) and Pipsqueak (Psq) from D. melanogaster S2 cells; and, Sono-seq (paired-end sequencing of formaldehyde cross-linked and sonicated chromatin) of yeast nuclei. Reb1 ORGANIC profiling was performed at three different salt (NaCl) concentrations (80, 150, and 600 mM) and Abf1 ORGANIC profiling was done at two different salt concentrations (80 and 600 mM) to achieve varying levels of stringency. GAF and Psq ORGANIC profiles were determined at 80 mM salt. Two replicates each of Reb1 and Abf1 600 mM ORGANIC experiments, mixed Drosophila S2 cell and S. cerevisiae nuclei Reb1 ORGANIC experiments, yeast Sono-seq, and GAF and Psq ORGANIC experiments were performed. Each S. cerevisiae and mixed S2 cell/yeast ORGANIC profiling experiment included separately sequenced input chromatin and ChIP samples. Total of 24 samples.
Project description:The centromere is the genetic locus that organizes the proteinaceous kinetochore and is responsible for attachment of the chromosome to the spindle at mitosis and meiosis. In most eukaryotes, the centromere consists of highly repetitive DNA sequences that are occupied by nucleosomes containing the CenH3 histone variant, whereas in budding yeast, an ~120-bp Centromere DNA Element (CDE) that is sufficient for centromere function is occupied by a single right-handed CenH3 (Cse4) nucleosome. However, these in vivo observations are inconsistent with in vitro evidence for left-handed octameric CenH3 nucleosomes. To help resolve these inconsistencies, we characterized yeast centromeric chromatin at single base-pair resolution. Intact particles containing both Cse4 and H2A are precisely protected from micrococcal nuclease over the entire CDE of all 16 yeast centromeres in both solubilized chromatin and the insoluble kinetochore. Small DNA-binding proteins protect CDEI and CDEIII and delimit the centromeric nucleosome to the ~80-bp CDEII, only enough for a single DNA wrap. As expected for a tripartite organization of centromeric chromatin, loss of Cbf1 protein, which binds to CDEI, both reduces the size of the centromere-protected region and shifts its location towards CDEIII. Surprisingly, Cse4 overproduction caused genome-wide misincorporation of non-functional CenH3-containing nucleosomes that protect ~135 base pairs and are preferentially enriched at sites of high nucleosome turnover. Our detection of two forms of CenH3 nucleosomes in the yeast genome, a singly wrapped particle at the functional centromere and octamer-sized particles on chromosome arms, reconcile seemingly conflicting in vivo and in vitro observations. We used micrococcal nuclease mapping, chromatin immunoprecipitation and paired-end sequencing to determine the structure of yeast centromeres at single base-pair resolution.
Project description:We have combined standard micrococcal (MNase) digestion of nuclei with a modified protocol for construction paired-end DNA sequencing libraries to map both nucleosomes and subnucleosome-sized particles at single base-pair resolution throughout the budding yeast genome. We found that partially unwrapped nucleosomes and subnucleosome-sized particles can occupy the same position within a cell population, suggesting dynamic behavior. By varying the time of MNase digestion, we have been able to observe changes that reflect differential sensitivity of particles, including eviction of nucleosomes. Our protocol and mapping method provide a general strategy for characterizing full epigenomes. We used micrococcal nuclease mapping, chromatin immunoprecipitation and paired-end sequencing to determine the structure of yeast centromeres at single base-pair resolution.
Project description:High throughput sequencing is frequently used to discover the location of regulatory interactions on chromatin. However, techniques that enrich DNA where regulatory activity takes place, such as chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), often yield less DNA than optimal for sequencing library preparation. Existing protocols for picogram-scale libraries require concomitant fragmentation of DNA, pre-amplification, or long overnight steps. We report a simple and fast library construction method that produces libraries from sub-nanogram quantities of DNA. This protocol yields conventional libraries with barcodes suitable for multiplexed sample analysis on the Illumina platform. We demonstrate the utility of this method by constructing a ChIP-seq library from 100 pg of ChIP DNA that demonstrates equivalent genomic coverage of target regions to a library produced from a larger scale experiment. Application of this method allows whole genome studies from samples where material or yields are limiting. Comparison of ChIP-seq libraries constructed from 100 pg DNA (this study) and nanograms of DNA (modENCODE). ChIP antibody: H3K27me3, Active Motif 31955.
Project description:Chromatin remodelers influence genetic processes by altering nucleosome occupancy, positioning, and composition. In vitro, yeast ISWI and CHD remodelers require > 20 bp of extranucleosomal DNA for remodeling, but linker DNA in S. cerevisiae averages < 20 bp. To resolve this paradox, we have mapped the genomic distributions of the yeast Isw1, Isw2, and Chd1 remodelers at base-pair resolution. Surprisingly, remodelers are highly enriched at promoter nucleosome depleted regions (5' NDRs), where they bind to regions of extended linker DNA. Remodelers are also enriched in the bodies of genes displaying high nucleosome turnover. We hypothesize that remodelers bind but do not act at 5' NDRs, remaining in physical proximity to gene bodies, where they act on regions of transient nucleosome depletion following transcriptional elongation. We have analyzed the dynamics of yeast ISWI and CHD chromatin remodeler genomic association at base-pair resolution using native chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (N-ChIP-seq).
Project description:The Swi2/Snf2-family ATPase Mot1 displaces TBP from DNA in vitro, but the global relationship between Mot1 and TBP in vivo has been unclear. We therefore mapped the distribution of Mot1 and TBP on native chromatin at base-pair resolution. Mot1 and TBP binding sites coincide throughout the genome, and depletion of TBP results in a global decrease in Mot1 binding. Using midpoint-versus-length mapping to assess the spatial relationship of Mot1 and TBP on chromatin, we find evidence that Mot1 approaches TBP from the upstream direction, consistent with its in vitro mode of action. Strikingly, inactivation of Mot1 leads to both increases and decreases in TBP-genome association. Sites of TBP gain tend to contain robust TATA boxes, while sites of TBP loss contain poly(dA:dT) tracts that may contribute to nucleosome exclusion. We propose that the action of Mot1 is required to clear TBP from intrinsically preferred (TATA-containing) binding sites, ensuring sufficient soluble TBP to bind intrinsically disfavored (TATA-less) sites. We have analyzed the genomic distributions of yeast TBP and Mot1 using Occupied Regions of Genomes from Affinity-purified Naturally Isolated Chromatin and sequencing (ORGANIC-seq).
Project description:Genome-wide mapping of protein–DNA interactions is essential for a full understanding of transcriptional regulation. A precise map of binding sites for transcription factors, core transcriptional machinery is vital for deciphering the gene regulatory networks that underlie various biological processes. Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIP–seq) is a technique for genome-wide profiling of DNA-binding proteins. However, our conventional ChIP–seq occasionally gives wider peaks which might be due to overlapping binding sites of two or more transcription factors. Therefore, to improve the resolution of our conventional ChIP–seq which have DNA-protein footprint of ~100 bp, we decreased the size of DNA-protein footprint to ~ 50 bp by DNaseI digestion of whole cell extract (WCE). ChIP-seq for Twist transcription factor in Drosophila embryos
Project description:High resolution ChIP-seq mapping, supported by in vitro reconstitution studies, suggests that the Cse4 nucleosome is a hemisome that occupies the ~80-bp AT-rich CDEII sequence. H4S47C-anchored cleavage mapping of S. cerevisiae centromeres
Project description:Heat shock rapidly induces expression of a small set of genes while globally repressing transcription, making it an attractive system for studying alterations in the chromatin landscape that accompany changes in gene regulation. We have characterized these changes using low-salt extraction of intact micrococcal nuclease (MNase)-treated Drosophila S2 cell nuclei to determine the active nucleosomal and subnucleosomal chromatin landscapes. The low-salt-soluble fraction corresponds to classical "active" chromatin and includes distinct size fractions of MNase-protected particles that can be precisely mapped by paired-end sequencing. After heat shock, the distribution of low-salt-soluble nucleosomes showed an overall reduction over gene bodies, consistent with down-regulation of transcription. No global changes were detected in the subnucleosomal landscape upstream of transcriptional start sites, however, we observed a genome-wide reduction of paused RNA Polymerase II from the active chromatin fraction. Furthermore, nucleosome turnover decreased within gene bodies in a pattern similar to that observed when transcription elongation was artificially inhibited. These observations suggest that reduced Pol II affinity and processivity is the dominant nuclear mechanism for genome-wide repression during heat shock. Our ability to precisely map both nucleosomal and subnucleosomal particles directly from classical active chromatin extracts to assay changes in the chromatin landscape provides a simple general strategy for epigenome characterization. High-throughput sequencing (Illumina HiSeq 2000) We have characterized changes to the active nucleosomal and subnucleosomal landscape during the heat shock response in Drosophila cells by genome-wide profiling of low-salt extracted micrococcal nuclease-treated nuclei, paused RNA Polymerase II and CATCH-IT nucleosome turnover.
Project description:Using high-resolution chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) of centromere components and clustering of sequence data we find that specific dimeric alpha-satellite units shared by multiple individuals dominate functional human centromeres. We have analyzed the chromatin landscape of the human genome using paired-end MNase-seq