Transcription profiling of human A549 induced tumours in mice treated with PCI-5002, PCI-5003, or control vehicle
ABSTRACT: We have demonstrated that water-soluble zinc ionophores can be administered to mice at relatively high doses and inhibit the growth of A549 lung cancer cells grown in xenograft models. Gene expression profiles of tumor specimens harvested from mice four hours after treatment confirmed that the activation of stress responsive genes occurs in vivo. These findings lead us to propose that the pharmacologic delivery of zinc to tumors using water solubilized ionophores is a potential approach to cancer therapy. Experiment Overall Design: 1.25 million A549 cells were injected subcutaneously/intramuscularly into the right hind flank of 6 week old CD-1 nude mice that had been irradiated with 4 Gy of total body irradiation from a 137Cs radiation source one day prior to tumor implantation. When the average size of tumors reached approximately 100 mm3, mice were randomized by tumor size to treatment groups, typically containing 6-8 mice per group. Tumor and body weight measurements were performed three times per week. Tumor volume was calculated using the equation V (mm3) = a x b2/2, where a is the largest diameter and b is the smallest diameter. No significant body weight loss was observed. To perform gene expression profiling, mice were treated intravenously with one dose (100 μmol/kg) PCI-5002, PCI-5003, or control vehicle (4 mice per group) when the average A549 tumor size reached 500 mm3. After four hours, tumors were harvested and snap frozen immediately on dry ice. Tumor tissue was homogenized, and total RNA was isolated and subjected to analysis using Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 Arrays as described above.
Project description:Interactions between the gene products encoded by the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes play critical roles in normal eukaryotic cellular function. Here, we characterized the metabolic and transcriptional properties of A549 lung cancer cells and their isogenic mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-depleted rho zero counterparts grown in cell culture and as tumor xenografts in immune-deficient mice. A manuscript summarizing our conclusions is under review. Experiment Overall Design: A549 rho zero and their parental A549 cells were grown in culture and as xenografts in nude mice. All experiments conducted in culture were performed in triplicate (6 experiments total) and all experiments conducted in xenografts were performed in quadruplicate (8 experiments total). A manuscript summarizing our experimental design is under review.
Project description:This SuperSeries is composed of the following subset Series:; GSE6960: Synthesis and Anticancer Properties of Water-Soluble Zinc Ionophores 1; GSE6962: Synthesis and Anticancer Properties of Water-Soluble Zinc Ionophores 2 Experiment Overall Design: Refer to individual Series
Project description:Radiotherapy is standard of care for inoperable non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) but adenocarcinoma NSCLC respond more poorly than squamous cell NSCLC. Transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) activity is induced by radiation and plays a recently recognized role in the DNA damage response. Here we show in murine lung tumor model that radiation activates TGFβ acutely and persistently and that TGFβ neutralizing antibody, 1D11, systemic treatment increased tumor control following either fractionated or single high dose radiation regimes. TGFβ dependent genes in the irradiated tumor indicated crosstalk between innate and adaptive immunity but therapeutic benefit of 1D11 in irradiated tumors in immunocompromised mice suggested that innate immune cells are more influential than the adaptive immune response. Irradiated tumors in which TGFβ was blocked were highly hypoxic, exhibit pronounced microvascular damage and promoted neither cancer-associated fibroblasts nor recruit bone marrow derived cells (BMDC). Tumor educated immature BMDC were significant sources of TGFβ and inhibiting BMDC recruitment achieved tumor growth control in response to RT comparable to TGFβ inhibition. Thus, radiation-induced TGFβ both compromises tumor control by RT and promotes reestablishment of the tumor microenvironment. Concordant with the critical role of TGFβ activity in RT, radiation resistant NSCLC adenocarcinomas exhibit higher TGFβ activity compared to squamous cell NSCLC, which suggests a rationale for using TGFβ inhibition to augment radiotherapy. Lewis lung cancer (LLC) model were established in 6 to 8 week-old C57BL/6 female mice by subcutaneous injection. When tumors were 60-80 mm3, Mice were randomized to achieve comparable mean tumor size for each treatment group as indicated below. Tumor growth were monitored and tumors were collected and characterized by gene expression profiling and immunostaining.
Project description:Ovarian carcinoma (OC) is the fifth leading cause of death among women in the United States. Persistent activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT3) is frequently detected in OC. STAT3 is activated by Janus family kinases (JAK) via cytokine receptors, growth factor receptor and non-growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases. Activation of STAT3 mediates tumor cell proliferation, survival, motility, invasion, and angiogenesis, and recent work demonstrates that STAT3 activation suppresses anti-tumor immune responses and supports tumor-promoting inflammation. We hypothesized that therapeutic targeting of the JAK/STAT3 pathway would inhibit tumor growth by direct effects on OC cells and by inhibition of cells in the tumor microenvironment (TME). To test this, we evaluated the effects of a small molecule JAK inhibitor, AZD1480, on cell viability, apoptosis, proliferation, migration and adhesion of OC cells in vitro. We then evaluated the effects of AZD1480 on in vivo tumor growth and progression, gene expression, tumor-associated matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity and immune cell populations in a transgenic mouse model of OC. AZD1480-treatment inhibited STAT3 phosphorylation and DNA binding, and migration and adhesion of cultured OC cells and ovarian tumor growth rate, volume and ascites production in mice. In addition, drug treatment led to altered gene expression, decreased tumor-associated MMP activity, and fewer suppressor T cells in the peritoneal tumor microenvironment of tumor-bearing mice than control mice. Taken together, our results show pharmacological inhibition of the JAK2/STAT3 pathway leads to disruption of functions essential for ovarian tumor growth and progression and represents a promising therapeutic strategy. 8 female C57BL/6JTgMISIIR-TAg mice with ovarian tumors of ~500 mm3 were used. 4 vehicle-treated mice (0.5% hypermellose/0.1%Tween 80);4 drug-treated mice (30 mg/kg AZD1480 in 0.5% hypermellose/0.1%Tween 80).
Project description:ATP synthase is crucial for ATP synthesis in living cells. Recently, ATP synthase was found not only in mitochondria but also on the extracellular surface, named as ectopic ATP synthase (ecto-ATP synthase). ATP synthase inhibitor is a potential drug candidate to fight cancer by blocking the ecto-ATP synthase of cells. In this study, we applied dynamic phosphoproteomics to elucidate the molecular responses to ecto-ATP synthase blockade.
Project description:Ewing Sarcoma is caused by a pathognomonic genomic translocation that places an N-terminal EWSR1 gene in approximation with one of several ETS genes (typically FLI1). This aberration, in turn, alters the transcriptional regulation of more than five hundred genes and perturbs a number of critical pathways that promote oncogenesis, cell growth, invasion, and metastasis. Among them, translocation-mediated up-regulation of the insulin-like growth factor receptor 1 (IGF-1R) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) are of particular importance since they work in concert to facilitate IGF-1R expression and ligand-induced activation, respectively, of proven importance in ES transformation. When used as a single agent in Ewing sarcoma therapy, IGF-1R or mTOR inhibition leads to rapid counter-regulatory effects that blunt the intended therapeutic purpose. Therefore, identify new mechanisms of resistance that are used by Ewing sarcoma to evade cell death to single-agent IGF-1R or mTOR inhibition might suggest a number of therapeutic combinations that could improve their clinical activity. Male non-obese diabetic (NOD)-SCID-IL-2Rgnull mice were used to generate EW5 explants (2 mm). Mice bearing subcutaneous tumors were randomized into treatment and control groups when their tumors reached a diameter of 6 mm and received MK-8669 (mTOR inhibitor, 5mg/kg per dose, once weekly), MK-0646 (IGF-1R inhibitor monoclonal antibody, 0.5mg IP twice weekly), or a placebo control (sterile buffer). Animals were treated either until their tumors reached 1500 mm3 in volume. Affymetrix Geneship profiling of EW5 xenografts treated in vivo either with MK-0646, MK-8669, and control and compared each other using extracted RNA and hybridized on Affymetrix microrrays ( Affymetrix Human Genome U133A 2.0 cartridge arrays).
Project description:To investigate the genetic effect of Deferasirox in pancreatic cancer, we examined gene expression alternations in the removed tumors exposed to Deferasirox. Pancreatic cancer cells (BxPC-3) in culture were harvested and viable cells were injected subcutaneously into the backs of the mice. When tumor volumes reached 150 mm3, treatment began. The treatment group of mice received Deferasirox suspended in saline, which was administered by oral gavage every second day, with three treatments per week, over 21 days at concentrations of 200 mg/kg. The control mice were treated with the vehicle alone. At the end of the experiment, the mice were sacrificed and the tumors were excised and processed for genetic analyses. A total of 6 tumors were analyzed. Of these, 3 tumors were removed from vehicle-treated mice, and the other 3 tumors were removed from Deferasirox 200 mg/kg-treated mice.
Project description:We show that the small molecule enoxacin, a fluroquinolone used as an antibacterial compound, enhances the production of miRNAs with tumor suppressor functions by its binding to the microRNA biosynthesis protein TRBP. The use of enoxacin in human cell cultures and xenografted, orthotopic and metastases mice models demonstrate a TRBP-dependent and cancer-specific growth inhibitory effect of the drug.
Project description:This study was performed to understand the gene expression changes that accompany treatment of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) with vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy. Human RCC cell lines were implanted into the flanks of nude beige mice, allowed to reach 12mm in long axis, and then treated with TKIs (sunitinib or sorafenib). Tumors were excised at 2 timepoints (prior to any therapy and at the 20mm endpoint of the study) and gene expression analysis was performed. Sunitinb or sorafenib were administered to mice bearing either 786-O or A498 xenografts. Mice were sacrificed and tumors excised for RNA extraction at pretreatment size of 12mm, or at 20mm, the mandated maximum tumor size allowed at our institution.
Project description:Cyclophosphamide (CPA) treatment on a six-day repeating metronomic schedule induces a dramatic, innate immune cell-dependent regression of implanted gliomas. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms of innate immune cell mobilization and recruitment, or about the role of DNA damage and cell stress response pathways in eliciting the anti-tumor immune responses linked to tumor regression. To address these questions, we compared untreated and 6-day metronomic cyclophosphamide-treated human U251 glioblastoma xenografts by human microarray analysis to identify responsive tumor cell-specific factors. Human glioma U251 tumors were implanted sc in scid immunodeficient mice then treated with cyclophosphamide at 140 mg/kg every 6 days. Tumors were collected 6 days after the second cyclophosphamide treatment and also 6 days after the third cyclophosphamide treatment. Tumor RNA was then analyzed on two color Agilent human expression microarrays comparing cyclophosphamide-treated RNA to untreated control tumor RNA.