Transcriptomic gene profiling of porcine muscle tissue depending on histological properties
ABSTRACT: Purpose: Next-generation sequencing (NGS) was used to select genes potentially associated with fiber-type distribution and cell size in porcine muscle tissue. Methods: The histological profile of the longissimus lumborum muscle was establish by method involving detection of NADPH dehydrogenase (diaphorase) and immunohistochemically detection of myosin chains. The muscle transcriptome sequencing was performed for 11 pigs using Illumina HiScan SQ in 50 single-end cycles. The quantifying transcript abundances was made using the RSEM supported by STAR aligner. The raw reads were aligned to the Sus scrofa reference genome (assembly Sscrofa10.2). Differentially expressed genes were detected by edgeR, baySeq and DESeq2. The RNA-seq results were validated using by qPCR. Results: The RNA-seq approach allows to identify 397 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) indicated as significant (FDR<0.05) using three software: DESeq2, edgeR and baySeq. Detected genes and pathways deregulated in muscle depend on tissue microstructure were associated with metabolic processes – 158 genes; cellular processes – 122; biological regulation – 62; localization – 51 and 35 genes with developmental processes. The detected DEGs were included in such pathways as: PI3K-Akt; FoxO and MAPK signaling pathways, regulation of actin cytoskeleton, lysine degradation and insulin signaling pathway as well as in mTOR and Hippo signaling. Conclusions: This results highlight the mainly metabolic pathways related with glucose metabolism and contraction processes of muscle cells. The comparison of whole gene expression profiles between muscles characterized by different fiber-type distribution showed that processes of growth and proliferation of different fiber types are determined by diverse molecular mechanism, which conditioned the unique histological structure of muscle tissue. The muscle (longissimus lumborum) transcriptome sequencing was performed for 11 pigs using Illumina HiScan SQ in 50 single-end cycles and in five technical repetitions.
Project description:We sequenced mRNA from 32 muscles (n=16 semimembranosus,n=16 longisimus dorsi) of two pig breeds (Puławska and Polish Landrace), which are differing in firmness. The differences between pig groups with respect to shear force of coocked meat were significant and amounted to 64.88 N (P<0.01) in longisimus dorsi and 14.8 N (P<0.05) for semimembranosus. Examination of mRNA levels between pig breeds differing in shear force. Project ID: 217776 founded National Science Centre (NCN), title: Application of targeted next generation sequencing (NGS) in the identification of genetic markers associated with the pork quality
Project description:It is currently unclear as to whether sex hormones are significantly affected by soy or whey protein consumption. Additionally, estrogenic signaling may be potentiated via soy protein supplementation due to the presence of phytoestrogenic isoflavones. Limited also evidence suggests that whey protein supplementation may increase androgenic signaling. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of soy protein concentrate (SPC), whey protein concentrate (WPC), or placebo (PLA) supplementation on serum sex hormones, androgen signaling markers in muscle tissue, and estrogen signaling markers in subcutaneous (SQ) adipose tissue of previously untrained, college-aged men (n = 47, 20 ± 1 yrs) that resistance trained for 12 weeks. Fasting serum total testosterone increased pre- to post-training, but more so in subjects consuming WPC (p < 0.05), whereas serum 17β-estradiol remained unaltered. SQ estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) protein expression and hormone-sensitive lipase mRNA increased with training regardless of supplementation. Muscle androgen receptor (AR) mRNA increased while ornithine decarboxylase mRNA (a gene target indicative of androgen signaling) decreased with training regardless of supplementation (p < 0.05). No significant interactions of supplement and time were observed for adipose tissue ERα/β protein levels, muscle tissue AR protein levels, or mRNAs in either tissue indicative of altered estrogenic or androgenic activity. Interestingly, WPC had the largest effect on increasing type II muscle fiber cross sectional area values (Cohen's d = 1.30), whereas SPC had the largest effect on increasing this metric in type I fibers (Cohen's d = 0.84). These data suggest that, while isoflavones were detected in SPC, chronic WPC or SPC supplementation did not appreciably affect biomarkers related to muscle androgenic signaling or SQ estrogenic signaling. The noted fiber type-specific responses to WPC and SPC supplementation warrant future research.
Project description:Purpose: RNA-seq method was used to select genes expressed in muscle tissue and are potentially associated with exercise adaptation in Arabian horses. Methods: Whole transcriptomes between three time points of muscle tissue collection were compared: T0 (untrained horses), T1 (horses after intense gallop phase) and T2 (at the end of the racing season), in total 23 samples. The biopsy of gluteus medius muscle was performed by using minimally invasive ProMag™ Ultra Automatic Biopsy Instrument with a 2 mm diameter biopsy needle. The total RNA was isolated using by TriReagent and 300ng was used to cDNA libraries preparation. The NGS sequencing was performed on HiScan SQ (Illumina). The quantifying transcript abundances was made using the RSEM supported by STAR aligner. The raw reads were aligned to the Equus caballus reference genome. Differentially expressed genes were detected by DESeq2. The RNA-seq results were validated using by qPCR. Results: To detected differentially expressed genes during training preparing to the flat racing, whole transcriptomes between three time points of muscle tissue collection were compared: T0 (untrained horses), T1 (horses after intense gallop phase) and T2 (at the end of the racing season). We identified 1168 DEGs between T0 vs T1; 1593 between T1 vs T2 and 763 between T2 vs T0. The analysis for all DEGs allow to detect 11 pathways which ale significant over represented between at last two training periods. The numerous group of exercise-regulated DEGs was related with muscle cell structure and signaling (‘focal adhesion’, ‘adherens juntion’ and ‘PI3-ATK signaling’) and included insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R); insulin receptor (INSR); transforming growth factor beta receptors 1 and 2 (TGFBR1; TGFBR2); vascular endothelial growth factor B (VEGFB); epidermal growth factor (EGF); hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor D (FIGF). Our results showed that in Arabian horses exercise modified the expression of genes belonging to the ‘PPAR signaling pathway’ (e.g. PPARA; PPARD; PLIN2); ‘calcium signaling pathway’ (e.g. PLN; PLCD1; TNNC1; TNNC2) as well as pathways associated with metabolism processes - ‘oxidative phosphorylation’; ‘fatty acid metabolism’; ‘glycolysis/gluconeogenesis’ and ‘citrate cycle’. Conclusions: Our research allowed to identify the group of exercise-regulated genes which was related with muscle cell structure as well as signaling and pinpointed the significant metabolic processes critical for adaptive response during training. We confirmed that in Arabians, the exercise switch energy generation towards fatty acid utilization, enhance glycogen transport and calcium signaling. The sequencing of skeletal muscle transcriptome allowed to propose the panel of new candidate genes (such as SLC16A1; ME3; ACTN3; PPARα; SH3RF2; TPM3; TNNC1; TNNI3; TGFBR1; TGFBR2; FABP3) potentially related with body homeostasis maintenance and race performance in Arabian horse. Overall design: The muscle (gluteus medius) transcriptome sequencing was performed for 23 samples collected form Arabian horses , using Illumina HiScan SQ in50 single-end cycles and in 6 technical repetitions repetitions.
Project description:Recent work revealed the development of marked diaphragm muscle fiber weakness during two hours of thoracic surgery. This loss of muscle fiber function was not part of a generalized muscle weakness as function of the non-respiratory latissimus dorsi muscle was preserved. To disentangle the molecular processes that might underlie the development of diaphragm muscle fiber weakness during thoracic surgery we studied changes in the gene expression profile. Analyzed were diaphragm samples at t0 vs t2 and latissimus dorsi at t0 vs t2. In total 8 Diaphragm samples and 6 latissimus dorsi samples were analyzed.
Project description:Empirical Bayes is a choice framework for differential expression (DE) analysis for multi-group RNA-seq count data. Its characteristic ability to compute posterior probabilities for predefined expression patterns allows users to assign the pattern with the highest value to the gene under consideration. However, current Bayesian methods such as baySeq and EBSeq can be improved, especially with respect to normalization. Two R packages (baySeq and EBSeq) with their default normalization settings and with other normalization methods (MRN and TCC) were compared using three-group simulation data and real count data. Our findings were as follows: (1) the Bayesian methods coupled with TCC normalization performed comparably or better than those with the default normalization settings under various simulation scenarios, (2) default DE pipelines provided in TCC that implements a generalized linear model framework was still superior to the Bayesian methods with TCC normalization when overall degree of DE was evaluated, and (3) baySeq with TCC was robust against different choices of possible expression patterns. In practice, we recommend using the default DE pipeline provided in TCC for obtaining overall gene ranking and then using the baySeq with TCC normalization for assigning the most plausible expression patterns to individual genes.
Project description:The difference in muscle fiber types is very important to the muscle development and meat quality of broilers. At present, the molecular regulation mechanisms of skeletal muscle fiber-type transformation in broilers are still unclear. In this study, differentially expressed genes between breast and leg muscles in broilers were analyzed using RNA-seq. A total of 767 DEGs were identified. Compared with leg muscle, there were 429 upregulated genes and 338 downregulated genes in breast muscle. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment indicated that these DEGs were mainly involved in cellular processes, single organism processes, cells, and cellular components, as well as binding and catalytic activity. KEGG analysis shows that a total of 230 DEGs were mapped to 126 KEGG pathways and significantly enriched in the four pathways of glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, starch and sucrose metabolism, insulin signalling pathways, and the biosynthesis of amino acids. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to verify the differential expression of 7 selected DEGs, and the results were consistent with RNA-seq data. In addition, the expression profile of MyHC isoforms in chicken skeletal muscle cells showed that with the extension of differentiation time, the expression of fast fiber subunits (types IIA and IIB) gradually increased, while slow muscle fiber subunits (type I) showed a downward trend after 4 days of differentiation. The differential genes screened in this study will provide some new ideas for further understanding the molecular mechanism of skeletal muscle fiber transformation in broilers.
Project description:NAD is an obligate co-factor for the catabolism of metabolic fuels in all cell types. However, the availability of NAD in several tissues can become limited during genotoxic stress and the course of natural aging. The point at which NAD restriction imposes functional limitations on tissue physiology remains unknown. We examined this question in murine skeletal muscle by specifically depleting Nampt, an essential enzyme in the NAD salvage pathway. Knockout mice exhibited a dramatic 85% decline in intramuscular NAD content, accompanied by fiber degeneration and progressive loss of both muscle strength and treadmill endurance. Administration of the NAD precursor nicotinamide riboside rapidly ameliorated functional deficits and restored muscle mass, despite having only a modest effect on the intramuscular NAD pool. Additionally, lifelong overexpression of Nampt preserved muscle NAD levels and exercise capacity in aged mice, supporting a critical role for tissue-autonomous NAD homeostasis in maintaining muscle mass and function. Messenger RNA was isolated from quadriceps muscle of mice from three different age groups and three different genotypes. Wildtype mice were aged 4, 7, and 24 months. Mice deficient for Nampt in skeletal muscle (mNKO) were aged 7 months. Mice overexpressing Nampt in skeletal muscle were aged 4 and 24 months.
Project description:The aim of this study was to determine the relationships among muscle fiber-type composition, fiber diameter, and myogenic regulatory factor (MRF) gene expression in different skeletal muscles during development in naturally grazing Wuzhumuqin sheep. Three major muscles (i.e. the Longissimus dorsi (LD), Biceps femoris (BF) and Triceps brachii (TB)) were obtained from 20 Wuzhumuqin sheep and 20 castrated rams at each of the following ages: 1, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 18 months. Muscle fiber-type composition and fiber diameter were measured using histochemistry and morphological analysis, and MRF gene expression levels were determined using real-time PCR. In the LD muscle, changes in the proportion of each of different types of fiber (I, IIA and IIB) were relatively small. In the BF muscle, a higher proportion of type I and a 6.19-fold lower proportion of type IIA fibers were observed (P < 0.05). In addition, the compositions of type I and IIA fibers continuously changed in the TB muscle (P < 0.05). Moreover, muscle diameter gradually increased throughout development (P < 0.05). Almost no significant difference was found in MRF gene expression patterns, which appeared to be relatively stable. These results suggest that changes in fiber-type composition and increases in fiber size may be mutually interacting processes during muscle development.
Project description:Purpose: RNA-seq method was applied to select genes expressed in fat tissue and pinpointed genes potentially associated with fatness traits in pigs. Methods: The RNA-seq analysis was performed on fat tissue collected from 16 Pulawska pigs (8 pigs per two groups - with high and low backfat thickness) maintained at the same environmental and feeding condition. The total RNA was isolated using by TriReagent and 300ng was used to cDNA libraries preparation. The NGS sequencing was performed on HiScan SQ (Illumina) in 90 single-end cycles. The quantifying transcript abundances was made using the RSEM supported by STAR aligner. The raw reads were aligned to the Sus scrofa reference genome. Differentially expressed genes were detected by DESeq2. The RNA-seq results were validated using by qPCR. Results: In the group of pigs characterized by thicker subcutaneous fat, 166 genes with increased expression were identified, including genes involved in biological processes associated with negative regulation of long-chain fatty acid transport (GO: 0010748) (IRS2, THBS1, AKT2), regulation of metabolic lipids ( GO: 0019216) (EEF1A2, IRS2, ACACA, SIK1, ADGRF5, IDH1, FGF2, PDE3B, FASN, AKT2, CYR61, CHD9, ME1, SCD), cellular response to hormonal stimuli (GO: 0032870) (IRS2, ACACA, SIK1 , GHR, NR4A1, PDE3B, PTGER2, AKT2, AACS, ADCY6, KAT2B, RHOQ, FOS). Genes involved in the signaling pathway responsible for the activation of gene expression by SREBF (R-SSC-2426168) (ACACA, FASN, CHD9, SCD ) and the insulin signaling pathway also were identified (RHOQ, SOCS3, IRS2, AKT2, PDE3B, PYGM, FASN, ACACA). Conclusions: The presented results allowed to pinpointed the interesting, candidate genes related with fat content in carcasses in pigs, which can be analyzed in future in the term of using in breeding practice as genetic markers. The study was financed from funds of the project -BIOSTRATEG, the decision number BIOSTRATEG2/297267/14/NCBR/2016. Overall design: The subcutaneous fat transcriptome sequencing was performed for 16 samples collected form Pulawska breed, using Illumina HiScan SQ in 90 single-end cycles and in 4 technical repetitions.
Project description:We report data obtaibed from high-throughput sequencing of small RNAs in 20 samples of follicular thyroid tumors. We analyzed a total of 4.7±1.5million reads per sample with 3 different pipelines. The main goal was to evaluate the usefulness of next generation sequencing in small RNA profiling and the concordance of its results with microarrays and qPCR. Additionally we verified published follicular thyroid tumor biomarkers in the set of our samples. Small RNA expression profiling with High Throughput Sequencing of 20 thyroid tumor samples, performed on an Illumina HiScan-SQ.