Identification of Multiple Proteins Coupling Transcriptional Regulation to Genome Stability in Arabidopsis thaliana
ABSTRACT: Eukaryotic genomes are heavily regulated by epigenetic marks that often act to modulate the transcriptional control of genetic elements. In Arabidopsis thaliana the ATXR5 and ATXR6 histone methyltransferases, and their cognate H3K27 monomethylation mark, act in transcriptional silencing while also maintaining genome stability by preventing generation of excess DNA corresponding to pericentromeric heterochromatin. In this study we characterize the atxr5 atxr6 transcriptome and its relationship to the DNA damage response which suggests that the atxr5 atxr6 transcriptional defects may be epistatic to the genome instability defects in the mutants. In addition we isolate several factors that modulate both the transcriptional and genomic instability phenotypes of atxr5 atxr6 mutants, which suggest a mechanism for atxr5 atxr6-induced extra DNA involving conflicts between the replicative and transcriptional processes in the cell. PolyA RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), whole-genome resequencing (DNA-seq), and whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (methyl-seq) was performed on Arabidospsis thaliana mutant and wildtype plants. DNA-seq was used to characterize DNA copy number and map EMS-induced mutations, RNA-seq was used to quantify transcript abundance and map EMS-induced mutations, and methyl-seq was used to assess DNA methylation. Details of the relationship between samples in this series and figures in the associated manuscript can be found in Supplemental Table 4 of the associated manuscript. Unless otherwise noted in the description all lines are ecotype Columbia, and all genotypes should be assumed homozygous unless otherwise indicated with a '/'.
Project description:DNA methylation is a conserved epigenetic gene regulation mechanism. DOMAINS REARRANGED METHYLTRANSFERASE (DRM) is a key de novo methyltransferase in plants, but how DRM acts mechanistically is poorly understood. Here, we report the crystal structure of the methyltransferase domain of tobacco DRM (NtDRM) and reveal a molecular basis for its rearranged structure. NtDRM forms a functional homo-dimer critical for catalytic activity. We also show that Arabidopsis DRM2 exists in complex with the siRNA effector ARGONAUTE4 (AGO4) and preferentially methylates one DNA strand, likely the strand acting as the template for non-coding Pol V RNA transcripts. This strand-biased DNA methylation is also positively correlated with strand-biased siRNA accumulation. These data suggest a model in which DRM2 is guided to target loci by AGO4-siRNA and involves base-pairing of associated siRNAs with nascent RNA transcripts. Whole-genome bisulfite sequencing was done for a wildtype line (ecotype Col) as well as various transgenic lines in a drm2 mutant background (ecotype Col). Each transgenic line expressed a version of the DRM2 protein that was either wildtype or carried induced mutations in order to test the function of various domains in the DRM2 protein. Two sets of whole-genome bisulfite were performed (130615 or 131216) and comparisons were mainly done within sets although comparisons can also be done between sets. The drm2 mutant methylome was also analyzed in this study using a previously published whole-genome bisulfite library (GSE39901).
Project description:Genetic and epigenetic alterations are essential for the initiation and progression of human cancer. We previously reported that primary human medulloblastomas showed extensive cancer-specific CpG island DNA hypermethylation in critical developmental pathways. To determine whether genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) of medulloblastoma have comparable epigenetic changes, we assessed genome-wide DNA methylation in three mouse models of medulloblastoma. In contrast to human samples, very few loci with cancer-specific DNA hypermethylation were detected, and in almost all cases the degree of methylation was relatively modest compared to the dense hypermethylation in the human cancers. To determine if this finding was common to other GEMMs, we examined a Burkitt lymphoma and breast cancer model and did not detect promoter CpG island DNA hypermethylation, suggesting that human cancers and at least some GEMMs are fundamentally different with respect to this epigenetic modification. These findings provide an opportunity to both better understand the mechanism of aberrant DNA methylation in human cancer and construct better GEMMs to serve as preclinical platforms for therapy development. Examination of DNA methylation in one representative human medulloblastoma patient sample and three different mouse models of medulloblastoma using RRBS
Project description:The earliest stages of Huntington’s disease are marked by changes in gene expression that are caused in an indirect and poorly understood manner by polyglutamine expansions in the huntingtin protein (HTT). To explore the hypothesis DNA methylation may be altered in cells expressing mutated HTT, we use reduced-representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) to map sites of DNA methylation in cells carrying either wild-type or mutant HTT. We find that a large fraction of the genes that change in expression in the presence of mutant huntingtin demonstrate significant changes in DNA methylation. Regions with low CpG content, which have previously been shown to undergo methylation changes in response to neuronal activity, are disproportionately affected. Based on the sequence of regions that change in methylation, we identify AP-1 and SOX2 as transcriptional regulators associated with DNA methylation changes, and we confirm these hypotheses using genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP-Seq). Our findings suggest new mechanisms for the effects of polyglutamine-expanded HTT. These results also raise important questions about the potential effects of changes in DNA methylation on neurogenesis and at later stages, cognitive decline in Huntington’s patients. RRBS in STHdhQ7/Q7 and STHdhQ111/Q111 cells
Project description:There is increasing evidence that interindividual epigenetic variation is an etiological factor in common human diseases. Such epigenetic variation could be genetic or non-genetic in origin, and epigenome-wide association studies (EWASs) are underway for a wide variety of diseases/phenotypes. However, performing an EWAS is associated with a range of issues not typically encountered in genome-wide association studies (GWASs), such as the tissue to be analyzed. In many EWASs, it is not possible to analyze the target tissue in large numbers of live humans, and consequently surrogate tissues are employed, most commonly blood. But there is as yet no evidence demonstrating that blood is more informative than buccal cells, the other easily accessible tissue. To assess the potential of buccal cells for use in EWASs, we performed a comprehensive analysis of a buccal cell methylome using whole-genome bisulfite sequencing. Strikingly, a buccal vs. blood comparison reveals >6X as many hypomethylated regions in buccal. These tissue-specific differentially methylated regions (tDMRs) are strongly enriched for DNaseI hotspots. Almost 75% of these tDMRs are not captured by commonly used DNA methylome profiling platforms such as Reduced Representational Bisulfite Sequencing and the Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip, and they also display distinct genomic properties. Buccal hypo-tDMRs show a statistically significant enrichment near SNPs associated to disease identified through GWASs. Finally, we find that, compared with blood, buccal hypo-tDMRs show significantly greater overlap with hypomethylated regions in other tissues. We propose that for non-blood based diseases/phenotypes, buccal will be a more informative tissue for EWASs. Buccal Profile generated from 14 Buccal Individuals
Project description:Ras-related associated with diabetes (RRAD) is a small Ras-related GTPase that is frequently inactivated by DNA methylation of the CpG island in its promoter region in cancer tissues. However, the role of the methylation-induced RRAD inactivation in tumorigenesis remains unclear. In this study, the Ras regulated-transcriptome and epigenome were profiled by comparing T29H (a RasV12-transformed human ovarian epithelial cell line) with T29 (an immortalized but non-transformed cell line) through Reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS-seq) and Digital gene expression (DGE) . We found that RasV12-mediated oncogenic transformation was accompanied by RRAD promoter hypermethylation and a concomitant loss of RRAD expression. In addition, we found that the RRAD promoter was hypermethylated and its transcription was reduced in ovarian cancer versus normal ovarian tissues. Treatment with the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5-aza-dC) resulted in demethylation in RRAD promoter and restored RRAD expression in T29H cells. By employing knockdown and overexpression techniques in T29 and T29H, respectively, we found that RRAD inhibited glucose uptake and lactate production by repressing the expression of glucose transporters. Finally, RRAD overexpression in T29H cells inhibited tumor formation in nude mice, suggesting RRAD is a tumor suppressor gene. Our results indicate that RasV12-mediated oncogenic transformation induces RRAD epigenetic inactivation, which in turn promotes glucose uptake and may contribute to ovarian cancer tumorigenesis Reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (MspI,~40-220bp size fraction) data for two cell lines (T29 and T29H) were generated by deep sequencing, in two replicates, using Illumina HiSeq 2000.
Project description:Bisulfite-seq data sets were generated for peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBL) and hair follicle (HF) DNA from each of two healthy males. Examination of genome-wide CpG methylation two tissues (hair follicle and peripheral blood lymphocyte) from 2 healthy male individuals.
Project description:Whole genome bisulfite sequencing was performed on Chromomethylase-2 and Dicer-like-3 knockout mutants in order to confirm the results from genome wide association mapping and to identify the respective genomic regions that they target. Bisulfite sequencing of knockout mutants and WT controls
Project description:DNA methylation is a key epigenetic regulator of mammalian embryogenesis and somatic cell differentiation. Using high-resolution genome-scale maps of methylation patterns, we show that the formation of myelin in the peripheral nervous system, proceeds with progressive DNA demethylation, which coincides with an upregulation of critical genes of the myelination process. More importantly, we found that, in addition to expression of DNA methyltransferases and demethylases, the levels of S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe), the principal biological methyl donor, could also play a critical role in regulating DNA methylation during myelination and in the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy. In summary, this study provides compelling evidence that SAMe levels need to be tightly controlled to prevent aberrant DNA methylation patterns, and together with recently published studies on the influence of SAMe on histone methylation in cancer and embryonic stem cell differentiation show that in diverse biological processes, the methylome, and consequently gene expression patterns, are critically dependent on levels of SAMe. DNA methylome maps of developmental Schwann cell myelination, GNMT-KO and diabetic mice were generated by Reduced-Representation Bisulfite Sequencing, with 2-3 replicates per sample group.
Project description:Dnmt2 is a widely conserved protein, which is closely related to eukaryotic DNA methyltransferases. However, Dnmt2 shows a robust tRNA methyltransferase activity and only limited activity towards DNA. Interestingly, a recent study has provided evidence for a biologically important function of Dnmt2-dependent DNA methylation in the blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni, which seemed to contradict the weak activity of the enzyme in other organisms. We now used whole-genome bisulfite sequencing to comprehensively analyze the methylome of adult worms and could not detect any evidence for biologically relevant DNA methylation patterns. We also characterized the methylome of Drosophila melanogaster embryos and did not find any evidence for DNA methylation. Unconverted cytosine residues were detectable only at very low levels and shared many attributes with bisulfite deamination artifacts. Our results thus strongly argue against a DNA methyltransferase activity of Dnmt2 and suggest that Dnmt2-dependent phenotypes are caused by reduced tRNA methylation. Whole genome methylation analysis of S. mansoni. One sample was analyzed, containing DNA from adult male worms.
Project description:Dnmt2 is a widely conserved protein, which is closely related to eukaryotic DNA methyltransferases. However, Dnmt2 shows a robust tRNA methyltransferase activity and only limited activity towards DNA. Interestingly, a recent study has provided evidence for a biologically important function of Dnmt2-dependent DNA methylation in the blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni, which seemed to contradict the weak activity of the enzyme in other organisms. We now used whole-genome bisulfite sequencing to comprehensively analyze the methylome of adult worms and could not detect any evidence for biologically relevant DNA methylation patterns. We also characterized the methylome of Drosophila melanogaster embryos and did not find any evidence for DNA methylation. Unconverted cytosine residues were detectable only at very low levels and shared many attributes with bisulfite deamination artifacts. Our results thus strongly argue against a DNA methyltransferase activity of Dnmt2 and suggest that Dnmt2-dependent phenotypes are caused by reduced tRNA methylation. Whole genome methylation analysis of D. melanogaster. Two samples were analyzed, one sample containing DNA from WT embryos, one sample containing DNA from Dnmt2-/- embryos.