Complex Balanced Translocation Disrupting TCF4 and Altering TCF4 Isoform Expression Segregates as Mild Autosomal Dominant Intellectual Disability
ABSTRACT: Mutations of TCF4, which encodes a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, cause Pitt-Hopkins syndrome (PTHS) via multiple genetic mechanisms. TCF4 is a complex locus expressing multiple transcripts by alternative splicing and use of multiple promoters. We report a three-generation family segregating mild intellectual disability with an apparently balanced chromosomal translocation t(14;18)(q23.3;q21.2) that we characterized as a complex unbalanced karyotype 46,XY,der(14)del(14)(q23.3q23.3)t(14;18)(q23.3;q21.2)del(18)(q21.2q21.2) del(18)(q21.2q21.2)inv(18)(q21.2q21.2),der(18)t(14 ;18)(q23.3;q21.2) disrupting TCF4. Using whole genome sequencing, transcriptome sequencing, qRT-PCR and nCounter analysis, we characterized the breakpoint junctions from derivative chromosomes and gene expression at the TCF4 locus. Our analyses revealed that family members segregating mild intellectual disability with the complex chromosome aberration had normal expression of genes along chromosomes 14 or 18 and no marked changes in expression of genes other than TCF4. Affected individuals had 12-33 fold higher mRNA levels of TCF4 than did unaffected controls or individuals with PTHS. Increased levels of TCF4 transcript variants originating distal to the translocation breakpoint, not the fusion transcript generated by the derivative chromosome, contributed to this increased. Although validation in additional patients is required, our findings suggest that the dysmorphic features and severe intellectual disability characteristic of PTHS is partially rescued by overexpression of short TCF4 transcripts encoding a nuclear localization signal, a transcription activation domain, and the basic helix-loop-helix domain. Examination of TCF4 Isoform expression comparison between mutant and control skin fibroblast tissues
Project description:Common genetic variants in and around the gene encoding transcription factor 4 (TCF4) are associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia whereas rare variants have been found in patients with intellectual disability (ID), developmental disorders and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Haploinsufficiency of TCF4 also causes Pitt Hopkins syndrome (PTHS); a condition characterized by developmental delay, ID and autonomic dysfunction. To understand the role of TCF4 in these disorders, we have used chromatin immunoprecipitation and next generation sequencing (ChIP-seq) to identify the genomic binding sites for TCF4. In this study we identify 10,604 binding sites assigned to 5,437 genes. De novo motif enrichment found that approximately 77% of the TCF4 binding sites contained at least one E-box (5’-CAtcTG). Furthermore, the majority of TCF4 binding sites overlapped with H3K27ac histone mark for active enhancers. Enrichment analysis on the set of TCF4 targets identified numerous, highly significant functional clusters for pathways including nervous system development, ion transport and signal transduction and co-expression modules for genes associated with synaptic function and brain development. Importantly, we found that genes harboring de novo mutations in schizophrenia (P < 5.3 x 10-7), ASD (P < 2.5 x 10-4) and ID (P < 7.6 x 10-3) were also enriched among TCF4 targets. These data demonstrate that TCF4 binding sites are found in a large number of neuronal genes that include genetic risk factors for common neurodevelopmental disorders. Overall design: 2 TCF4 ChIP samples and 2 IgG negative controls
Project description:BACKGROUND: Common variants in the TCF4 gene are among the most robustly supported genetic risk factors for schizophrenia. Rare TCF4 deletions and loss-of-function point mutations cause Pitt-Hopkins syndrome, a developmental disorder associated with severe intellectual disability. METHODS: In order to explore molecular and cellular mechanisms by which TCF4 perturbation could interfere with human cortical development, we experimentally reduced the endogenous expression of TCF4 in a neural progenitor cell line derived from the developing human cerebral cortex using RNA interference. Effects on genome-wide gene expression were assessed by microarray, followed by Gene Ontology and pathway analysis of differentially expressed genes. Effects on cell proliferation were assessed using high content imaging. RESULTS: Genes that were differentially expressed following TCF4 knockdown were highly enriched for involvement in the cell cycle. Consistent with the gene expression data, TCF4 knockdown was associated with reduced proliferation of cortical progenitor cells in vitro. CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate effects of TCF4 perturbation on human cortical progenitor cell proliferation, a process that could contribute to cognitive deficits in Pitt-Hopkins Syndrome and risk for schizophrenia. Overall design: Total RNA extracted from human neural progenitor cells manipulated with three siRNAs: control siRNA , siRNA_TCF4 1 (Cat #s13863) and siRNA TCF4 2 (Cat #s13864). 4 replicates per group. Genome wide transcript levels were then measured using gene expression microarrays.
Project description:The trade-off between growth and immunity is crucial for survival in plants. An antagonistic interaction has been observed between the growth-promoting hormone brassinosteroid and pathogen associated molecular pattern (PAMP) signals, which induce immunity but inhibit growth, however the underlying molecular mechanism has remained unclear. The PRE-IBH1-HBI1 triple helix-loop-helix/basic helix-loop-helix (HLH/bHLH) cascade has been shown to mediate growth responses to several hormonal and environmental signals, but its downstream targets and role in immunity remain unknown. Here, we performed genome-wide analyses of HBI1 target genes in Arabidopsis. The results show that HBI1 regulates a set of genes that largely overlaps with targets of PIFs, but displays both similar and unique transcriptional activities compared to PIFs, supporting a role in fine-tuning the network through cooperation and antagonism with other DNA-binding factors of the network. Furthermore, HBI1 also negatively regulates a subset of defense response genes. Two PAMPs, flagellin and elongation factor, repressed HBI1 expression, whereas overexpression of HBI1 reduced the PAMP-induced growth inhibition, defense gene expression, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and flg22-induced resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pathovar tomato DC3000. These data indicate that HBI1 is a node for crosstalk between hormone and immune pathways. This study demonstrates that the PRE-IBH1-HBI1 module integrates hormone and pathogen signals, and thus plays a central role in the balance between growth and immunity in plants. Compare the transcriptome of HBI1-Ox and wild type.
Project description:TWIST1, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor is essential for the development of cranial mesoderm and cranial neural crest-derived craniofacial structures. Our previous work showed that, in the absence of TWIST1, some cells within the cranial mesoderm adopt an abnormal epithelial configuration. Here, we show by transcriptome analysis that loss of TWIST1 in the cranial mesoderm is accompanied by a reduction in the expression of genes that are associated with cell-extracellular matrix interactions and the acquisition of mesenchymal characteristics. By comparing the transcriptional profiles of cranial mesoderm-specific Twist1 loss-of-function mutant and control mouse embryos, we identified a set of genes that are both TWIST1-dependent and predominantly expressed in the mesoderm. By ChIP-seq in a cell line model of a TWIST1-dependent mesenchymal state, we identified, among the downstream genes, three direct transcriptional targets of TWIST1: Ddr2, Pcolce and Tgfbi. Our findings show that the mesenchymal properties of the cranial mesoderm is likely to be regulated by a network of TWIST1 targets genes that influence the extracellular matrix and cell-matrix interactions, and collectively they are required for the morphogenesis of the craniofacial structures. For microarray analysis of CM-CKO embryos, embryo heads of four genotypes were collected at E8.5 (5-7 somites) and E9.5 (18- 20 somites): CM-CKO (Twist1flox/del; Mesp1Cre/+), CM-Het (Twist1flox/wt; Mesp1Cre/+), Het (Twist1flox/del; Mesp1+/+) and Control (Twist1flox/wt; Mesp1+/+). Sample sizes for E8.5 embryos were as follows: Control, n=4 CM-CKO, n=4; Het, n=3; CM-Hets, n=3).
Project description:β-catenin signaling can be both a physiological and an oncogenic pathway in the liver. It controls compartmentalized gene expression, allowing the liver to ensure its essential metabolic function. It is activated by mutations in 20 to 40% of hepatocellular carcinomas with specific metabolic features. We decipher the molecular determinants of β-catenin-dependent zonal transcription using mice with β-catenin-activated or -inactivated hepatocytes, characterizing in vivo their chromatin occupancy by Tcf4 and β-catenin, their transcriptome and their metabolome. We find that Tcf4 DNA-bindings depend on β-catenin. Tcf4/β-catenin binds Wnt-responsive elements preferentially around β-catenin-induced genes. In contrast, genes repressed by β-catenin bind Tcf4 on Hnf4-responsive elements. β-catenin, Tcf4 and Hnf4α interact, dictating β-catenin transcription which is antagonistic to that elicited by Hnf4α. Finally, we find the drug/bile metabolism pathway to be the one most heavily targeted by β-catenin, partly through xenobiotic nuclear receptors. We conclude that β-catenin patterns the zonal liver together with Tcf4, Hnf4α and xenobiotic nuclear receptors. This network represses lipid metabolism, and exacerbates glutamine, drug and bile metabolism, mirroring hepatocellular carcinomas with β-catenin mutational activation. In vivo liver samples in 4 conditions: Betacat activated (WCE, Tcf4 chipseq, Betacat chipseq, mRNAseq with 2 replicates), Betacat null (WCE, Tcf4 chipseq, mRNAseq with 2 replicates), Betacat control (mRNAseq with 2 replicates), Wild type (mRNAseq with 2 replicates)
Project description:TWIST1, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor is essential for the development of cranial mesoderm and cranial neural crest-derived craniofacial structures. Our previous work showed that, in the absence of TWIST1, some cells within the cranial mesoderm adopt an abnormal epithelial configuration. Here, we show by transcriptome analysis that loss of TWIST1 in the cranial mesoderm is accompanied by a reduction in the expression of genes that are associated with cell-extracellular matrix interactions and the acquisition of mesenchymal characteristics. By comparing the transcriptional profiles of cranial mesoderm-specific Twist1 loss-of-function mutant and control mouse embryos, we identified a set of genes that are both TWIST1-dependent and predominantly expressed in the mesoderm. By ChIP-seq in a cell line model of a TWIST1-dependent mesenchymal state, we identified, among the downstream genes, three direct transcriptional targets of TWIST1: Ddr2, Pcolce and Tgfbi. Our findings show that the mesenchymal properties of the cranial mesoderm is likely to be regulated by a network of TWIST1 targets genes that influence the extracellular matrix and cell-matrix interactions, and collectively they are required for the morphogenesis of the craniofacial structures. For microarray analysis of CM-CKO embryos, embryo heads of four genotypes were collected at E8.5 (5-7 somites) and E9.5 (18- 20 somites): CM-CKO (Twist1flox/del; Mesp1Cre/+), CM-Het (Twist1flox/wt; Mesp1Cre/+), Het (Twist1flox/del; Mesp1+/+) and Control (Twist1flox/wt; Mesp1+/+). Sample sizes for E9.5 were as follows: Control, n=3; CM-CKO, n=4; Het, n=4; CM-Het, n=4). RNA was extracted using the RNeasy Micro kit (Qiagen) and samples sent to the Australian Genome Research Foundation for labelling and hybridization.
Project description:Surprisingly few pathways signal between cells, raising questions about mechanisms for tissue-specific responses. In particular, Wnt ligands signal in many mammalian tissues, including the intestinal epithelium, where constitutive signaling causes cancer. Genome-wide analysis of DNA cis-regulatory regions bound by the intestine-restricted transcription factor CDX2 in colonic cells uncovered highly significant over-representation of sequences that bind TCF4, a transcriptional effector of intestinal Wnt signaling. Chromatin immunoprecipitation confirmed TCF4 occupancy at most such sites and co-occupancy of CDX2 and TCF4 across short distances. A region spanning the single nucleotide polymorphism rs6983267, which lies within a MYC enhancer and confers colorectal cancer risk in humans, represented one of many co-occupied sites. Co-occupancy correlated with intestine-specific gene expression and CDX2 loss reduced TCF4 binding.These results implicate CDX2 in directing TCF4 binding in intestinal cells. Co-occupancy of regulatory regions by signal-effector and tissue-restricted transcription factors may represent a general mechanism for ubiquitous signaling pathways to achieve tissue-specific outcomes. A series of ChIP-chip experiments identified the CDX2 cistrome and discovered and validated extensive co-binding with TCF4 in colon cancer cell lines Transcriptional profiling following shRNA-mediated CDX2 knockdown was employed to identify CDX2-dependent gene expression in the human colon cancer cell line Caco2
Project description:High resolution transcriptional profiling of H1-derived human neuronal precursor cells over a timecourse of differentiation in vitro. Human NPC differentiation timecourse covers Days 0,1,2,4,5,11, and 18 after induction of neuronal differentiation as described in manuscript. Each time point was assayed in triplicate cultures with the exception of Day 5, in which one outlier culture has been removed.
Project description:Koolen-de Vries syndrome (KdVS) is a multi-system disorder characterized by intellectual disability, friendly behavior, and congenital malformations. The syndrome is caused either by microdeletions in the 17q21.31 chromosomal region or by variants in the KANSL1 gene. The reciprocal 17q21.31 microduplication syndrome is associated with psychomotor delay, and reduced social interaction. To investigate the pathophysiology of 17q21.31 microdeletion and microduplication syndromes, we generated three mouse models: 1) the deletion (Del/+); or 2) the reciprocal duplication (Dup/+) of the 17q21.31 syntenic region; and 3) a heterozygous Kansl1 (Kans1+/-) model. We found altered weight, general activity, social behaviors, object recognition, and fear conditioning memory associated with craniofacial and brain structural changes observed in both Del/+ and Dup/+ animals. By investigating hippocampus function, we showed synaptic transmission defects in Del/+ and Dup/+ mice. Mutant mice with a heterozygous loss-of-function mutation in Kansl1 displayed similar behavioral and anatomical phenotypes compared to Del/+ mice with the exception of sociability phenotypes. Genes controlling chromatin organization, synaptic transmission and neurogenesis were upregulated in the hippocampus of Del/+ and Kansl1+/- animals. Our results demonstrate the implication of KANSL1 in the manifestation of KdVS phenotypes and extend substantially our knowledge about biological processes affected by these mutations. Clear differences in social behavior and gene expression profiles between Del/+ and Kansl1+/- mice suggested potential roles of other genes affected by the 17q21.31 deletion. Together, these novel mouse models provide new genetic tools valuable for the development of therapeutic approaches. Overall design: anti-H3k4me3 ChIP-seq; 12 samples. 3 Kansl1 +/- , 3 Del/+, 6 wts