Project description:Heat shock proteins (Hsps) are molecular chaperones primarily involved in maintenance of protein homeostasis. Their function has been best characterized in heat stress (HS) response during which Hsps are transcriptionally controlled by heat stress transcription factors (Hsfs). The role of Hsfs and Hsps in HS-response in tomato was initially examined by transcriptome analysis using the Massive Analysis of cDNA Ends (MACE) method. Approximately 9.6% of all genes expressed in leaves are enhanced in response to HS, including a subset of Hsfs and Hsps. The underlying Hsp-Hsf networks with potential functions in stress responses or developmental processes were further explored by meta-analysis of existing microarray datasets. We identified clusters with differential transcript profiles with respect to abiotic stresses, plant organs and developmental stages. The composition of two clusters points toward two major chaperone networks. One cluster consisted of constitutively expressed plastidial chaperones and other genes involved in chloroplast protein homeostasis. The second cluster represents genes strongly induced by heat, drought and salinity stress, including HsfA2 and many stress-inducible chaperones, but also potential targets of HsfA2 not related to protein homeostasis. This observation attributes a central regulatory role to HsfA2 in controlling different aspects of abiotic stress response and tolerance in tomato. 2 samples
Project description:Male reproductive tissues are more sensitive to heat stress compared to vegetative tissues, however the basis of this phenomenon is poorly understood. Heat stress transcription factors (Hsfs) regulate the transcriptional changes required for protection and recovery from heat stress. HsfA2 has been characterized as co-activator of HsfA1a in tomato and is considered as one of the major Hsfs accumulating in response to elevated temperatures. The role of HsfA2 in heat stress response of different tissues was examined by exploring the composition and structure of the tissue-specific regulatory networks in transgenic tomato plants with suppressed HsfA2 expression (A2AS). Transcriptome analysis revealed that HsfA2 acts in condition- and tissue-specific manner and that only a subset of heat stress induced genes require HsfA2 for higher expression. Remarkably, although HsfA2 is not essential for thermotolerance in seedlings and flowering plants, it is required for maintenance pollen viability under stress conditions. We show that the activation of Hsf networks is important for the developmentally regulated priming of heat stress response occurring at early stages of anther and pollen development. Thereby, HsfA2 is involved in pollen thermotolerance by directly regulating heat stress responsive genes but also by stimulating the synthesis of molecular chaperones under non-stress conditions. 8 samples
Project description:Phytophthora infestans is most notorious oomycete causing a devastating disease on tomato called late blight. The molecular mechanisms involved in host-parasite interaction is still unexplored well. Investigation of changes in gene expression profile after pathogen infection to find out the mechanisms involved in infection process Second full expanded leaves from both healthy tomato plants (non-inoculated) and diseased tomato plants inoculated with Phytophthora infestans inoculum were used to extract total RNA for microarry analysis 12 hours post inoculation time.
Project description:Plant and virus materials, inoculation and symptom evaluation<br><br>Tomato seedlings, cultivar Tricia (De Ruiter seeds, Bergschenhoek, the Netherlands) were grown in stonewool in climate chamber conditions (22 and 20°C during day and night periods of 10 and 14 hours, respectively, at 75% relative humidity). At 29 days after planting, plants were inoculated with a mild (1906; GenBank accession number FJ457096) and an aggressive (PCH 06/104; GenBank accession number FJ457097) PepMV isolate of the CH2 genotype. Here, a PepMV isolate is defined as the viral inoculum derived from PepMV infected plants from one specific tomato production site. After inoculation, the genotype of both isolates was determined using a previously described RT-PCR-RFLP method (Hanssen et al., 2008). Inoculation was performed on the second fully developed leaf as previously described (Hanssen et al., 2008). <br><br>The phenotypic response of tomato seedlings upon inoculation was evaluated by recording the development of typical nettlehead-like PepMV symptoms at 4, 8 and 12 days post inoculation (DPI) on 20 plants per treatment. PepMV induced nettlehead-like symptoms are characterized by a reduced leaf surface, leaf bubbling and leaf deformation (Hanssen et al., 2008). Symptoms were scored from 0 (no symptoms) to 3 (severe symptoms) (Figure 1b). Significant (p<0.05) differences in symptom scores were identified by analysis of variance (one-way ANOVA) and post-hoc Bonferroni tests using SPSS software (v. 10.0; SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA).<br><br><br><br>Microarray sample preparation and determination of viral titers<br><br>Tomato genes that were differentially regulated (more than twofold change with P value < 0,001) upon inoculation with the aggressive and mild PepMV isolates were identified at 4, 8 and 12 DPI using mock-inoculated control plants as a reference. At each time point, the youngest fully developed leaves from CH2 mild, CH2 aggressive and mock-inoculated plants were sampled for tomato gene chip hybridizations. Each plant was sampled only once. Three biological replicates, each consisting of pooled RNA extracts obtained from the youngest fully developed leaves of two seedlings, were analyzed per treatment. Total RNA was extracted using the RiboPure RNA extraction kit (Ambion) and reverse transcribed with labeled oligo-dT primers for hybridization onto custom-designed Affymetrix tomato GeneChip arrays (Syngenta Biotechnology, Inc., Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, US) that contains probe sets to interrogate 22,721 tomato transcripts (Van Esse et al., 2007). <br><br>Viral accumulation was measured using a PepMV-specific RT-qPCR assay with forward primer Pep5 (5' ATGAAGCATTCATACCAAAT 3') and reverse primer Pep4 (5' AATTCCGTGCACAACTAT 3'; Mumford & Metcalfe, 2001) respectively. PCR amplification was carried out using a Cepheid® Smart Cycler II thermocycler and analyzed using Smart Cycler software. The PCR program consisted of an initial denaturation step at 95°C for 15 min, 45 cycles of 15s at 94 ºC, 30 s at 50 °C and 30 s at 72 °C, followed by a final incubation step of 2 min at 72°C. Standard curves based on cDNA dilution series were generated to determine the relative concentrations of amplified viral RNA. Based on 4 replicates, run in two different analyses, a reaction efficiency of around 90% was obtained. Ct values obtained from the PepMV specific assay were standardized by subtraction from an internal control assay (efficiency 99%) amplifying a partial sequence of the ribulose 1.5-biphosphate carboxylase chloroplast gene (Sánchez-Navarro et al. 2005).<br><br>
Project description:Ribosome biogenesis is a major cellular processes involving a large inventory of proteinaceous and RNA cofactors. Recent bioinformatics approaches discovered a large but not complete overlap of the inventory between yeast, mammals and plants. We re-inspected the complexity of ribosome biogenesis factors (RBFs) by assigning co-orthologs to each protein family in the A. thaliana and S. lycopersicum genomes. We realized that about 25% of all analyzed RBFs in the two plant genomes are encoded by more than one gene. The majority is expressed in leaves and anthers of tomato as determined by next generation sequencing (NGS). For the analysis of NGS data we developed a software pipeline ‘CRACPipe’. This pipeline is designed to be very flexible with respect to genome selection and experimental set up. The NGS analysis revealed the expression of 24.538 genes in tomato leaves and of 22.893 genes in anthers. The observed expression of RBFs was confirmed by qRT-PCR for a randomly chosen sub-set of genes. Further, analysis of the expression profile of selected RBFs during male gametophyte development revealed a differential expression in the different developmental stages for the majority of genes. Based on our analysis we conclude that RBFs described in yeast but not present in plant genomes as concluded from previous orthology analysis are in parts replaced by other RBFs for which multiple genes have been identified in here. In addition, the obtained complexity for some RBFs accounts for a tissue and developmental specific regulation of ribosome biogenesis as well. 2 samples
Project description:We introduced the GAME1i construct into the indeterminate M82 cultivar by crossing, obtaining plants that displayed a phenotype of severe growth retardation, deformed leaves and abortion of flower buds . In addition, leaves of these plants exhibited dark necrotic spots resembling symptoms typically seen after infection of tomato by pathogenic bacteria like Xanthamonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv) or Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) . As no other tomato lines grown in the same greenhouse at the same time showed similar disease-like symptoms, we hypothesized that silencing GAME1 might mimic induction of disease symptoms in the absence of a pathogen. Indeed, we were able to isolate neither Xcv nor Pst (or other putative pathogens) from GAME1i leaves that displayed necrotic spots. Microarray analysis was performed to examine if the transgene, and possibly, the corresponding changes in the metabolic profile, induced the plant response system at the transcriptional level.
Project description:Bacillus thuringiensis, a well-known and effective bio-insecticide, has attracted considerable attention as a potential biological control agent for the suppression of plant diseases. Treatment of tomato roots with a filter-sterilized cell-free filtrate (CF) of B. thuringiensis systemically suppresses bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum through systemic activation of the plant defense system. Comparative analysis of the expression of the Pathogenesis-Related 1(P6) [PR-1(P6)] gene, a marker for induced resistance to pathogens, in various tissues of tomato plants treated with CF on their roots suggested that the B. thuringiensis-induced defense system was activated in the leaf, stem, and main root tissues, but not in the lateral root tissue. At the same time, the growth of R. solanacearum was significantly suppressed in the CF-treated main root tissue but not in the CF-treated lateral root tissue. This distinct activation of the defense reaction and suppression of R. solanacearum were reflected by the differences in the transcriptional profiles of the main and lateral tissues in response to the CF. In the CF-treated main root tissue, but not CF-treated lateral root tissue, the expression of several salicylic acid (SA)-responsive defense-related genes was specifically induced, whereas jasmonic acid (JA)-related gene expression was either down-regulated or not induced in response to the CF. On the other hand, genes encoding ethylene (ET)-related proteins were induced equally in both the main and lateral root tissues. Taken together, the co-activation of SA-dependent signaling pathway with ET-dependent signaling pathway and suppression of JA-dependent signaling pathway may play key roles in B. thuringiensis-induced resistance to R. solanacearum in tomato plants. Gene expression was measured in main and lateral root tissues of tomato treated with Bacillus thuringiensis or distilled water-treated control at 48 hours after treatment. Two independent experiments were performed at each tissue (main root or lateral root tissue) for each treatment (Bacillus thuringiensis or distilled water control).
Project description:Background: Plants attenuate their responses to a variety of bacterial and fungal pathogens, leading to higher incidences of pathogen infection at night. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism responsible for the light-induced defence response; transcriptome data would likely facilitate the elucidation of this mechanism. Results: In this study, we observed diurnal changes in tomato resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 (Pto DC3000), with the greatest susceptibility before midnight. Nightly light treatment, particularly red light treatment, significantly enhanced the resistance; this effect was correlated with increased salicylic acid (SA) accumulation and defence-related gene transcription. RNA-seq analysis revealed that red light induced a set of circadian rhythm-related genes involved in the phytochrome and SA-regulated resistance response. The biosynthesis and signalling pathways of multiple plant hormones (auxin, SA, jasmonate, and ethylene) were co-ordinately regulated following Pto DC3000 infection and red light, and the SA pathway was most significantly affected by red light and Pto DC3000 infection. This result indicates that SA-mediated signalling pathways are involved in red light-induced resistance to pathogens. Importantly, silencing of nonexpressor of pathogensis-related genes 1 (NPR1) partially compromised red light-induced resistance against Pto DC3000. Furthermore, sets of genes involved in redox homeostasis (respiratory burst oxidase homologue, RBOH; glutathione S-transferases, GSTs; glycosyltransferase, GTs), calcium (calmodulin, CAM; calmodulin-binding protein, CBP), and defence (polyphenol oxidase, PPO; nudix hydrolase1, NUDX1) as well as transcription factors (WRKY18, WRKY53, WRKY60, WRKY70) and cellulose synthase were differentially induced at the transcriptional level by red light in response to pathogen challenge. Conclusions: Taken together, our results suggest that there is a diurnal change in susceptibility to Pto DC3000 with greatest susceptibility in the evening. The red light induced-resistance to Pto DC3000 at night is associated with enhancement of the SA pathway, cellulose synthase, and reduced redox homeostasis. Four treatments including control, three biological replicates each treatment
Project description:We used Arabidopsis full-genome microarrays to characterize plant transcript accumulations at different stages of infection with the biotrophic oomycete downy mildew pathogen, Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis : initiation (< 1 dpi) and maintenance of infection (> 4 dpi). In two independent experiments, cotyledons from the ecotype Wassilewskija (WS) were inoculated with water, or with Hyaloperonospora arabidopsidis to establish a compatible interaction. Affymetrix ATH1 microarrays were used to profile Arabidopsis transcript accumulations at the initiation (mixed samples at 8 and 24 hours post inoculation, hpi; early stage) and maintenance (mixed samples at 4 and 6 days post inoculation; late stage) of the compatible interaction.