RNA-seq of wheat lodicules in four varieties at pre-flowering and early flowering stages
ABSTRACT: RNA-seq of wheat lodicules in two higly-chasmogamous (HCH) (Piko and Poezja) and two low-chasmogamy (LCH) (Euforia and KWS Dacanto) varieties at two developmental stages - pre-flowering and early flowering.
Project description:RNA from wheat lodicules in two highly-chasmogamous (HCH) (Piko and Poezja) and two low-chasmogamy (LCH) (Euforia and KWS Dacanto) varieties at two developmental stages - pre-flowering and early flowering were used to Representational Difference Analysis (cDNA-RDA). Lodicules at the pre-flowering were used as testers while the lodicules early flowering were selected as driver probes. This procedure results in accumulation of unique sequences upregulated in pre-flowering. The analysis was taken in three replicates for each variety (Piko, Poezja, Euforia, KWS Dacanto). The tester:driver ratio in three subsequent rounds of subtractive hybridization increased from 1:50, and 1:400 to 1:200000. Difference products obtained from the third subtraction in the size range from 200 to 800 bp were sequenced.
Project description:Plants of two non-restorer varieties of hexaploid winter wheat (Astoria, Grana) and two restorers ones (Patres and Primépi) were used to identify effective Rf (fertility restorer) genes by next generation sequencing on whole transcriptomes (RNA-seq).
Project description:Small RNA sequences from Arabidopsis lyrata flowering tissues, as isolated from flowering tissues of two biological replicates. These data were analyzed to 1) discover new micoRNAs in A. lyrata 2) examine microRNA processing accuary in A. lyrata and 3) to examine patterns of 24nt siRNA accumulation in A. lyrata. Two small RNA libraries from flowering tissues of two biological replicates were analyzed using an Applied Biosystems SOLiD™ System
Project description:Bamboo is a perennial flowering plant with a distinctive life cycle: many bamboo species remain in the vegetative phase for decades, followed by mass synchronous flowering and subsequent death. The phenomenon of bamboo flowering is not fully understood, but its periodicity is a major research focus. Here, we collected information on bamboo flowering events by investigating historical documents and field studies at the Bamboo Research Institute of Nanjing Forestry University. We compiled information on more than 630 flowering events, 124 of which accurately recorded the flowering cycle time. We summarized the specific flowering cycles of 85 bamboo species, as well as four kinds of bamboo flowering habits in detail. We present a theory of the bamboo flowering cycle and discuss the reasons for the observed variations in bamboo flowering. This review also introduces two mechanisms by which bamboo forests are rejuvenated after flowering and explains the flowering phenomena of bamboo forests using the bamboo flowering cycle theory. Finally, we present suggestions for forest management strategies. Bamboo flowering is a normal physiological phenomenon, even though it has unique elements compared with flowering in other plants. The results presented here provide valuable reference material for understanding bamboo flowering and its periodicity.
Project description:The transition to flowering in plants is controlled by a regulatory network that responds to both developmental and environmental signals. The MADS-box genes FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) and SHORT VEGETATIVE PHASE (SVP) are major flowering repressors that enhance responses to environmental cues such as winter temperatures, high ambient temperatures and photoperiod. FLC and SVP physically interact in vivo and mutation of each gene causes early flowering while the double mutant is more extreme. The molecular mechanisms underlying these genetic interactions are mostly unknown. We addressed the regulatory input of these two key transcription factors (TFs) both individually and as a complex at the genome-wide level through ChIP-seq and microarray expression analysis in single and double mutants. Analysis of each TF demonstrated that the complex acts predominantly via functional redundancy in the repression of flowering. SVP and FLC bind to the same regions of the flowering genes SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 (SOC1) and FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) but do not require the presence of the other to bind. However, genome-wide identification of SVP and FLC occupancy events revealed that their binding scenarios are quantitatively and qualitatively affected by the presence of the cognate partner. A subgroup of genes whose regulation by these TFs depends exclusively on combinatorial binding of both proteins was identified, demonstrating a qualitatively essential role of the SVP-FLC complex. Some of these genes are involved in the control of flowering through direct and indirect regulation of Gibberellin-related processes. Cis-regulatory elements enriched only at such complex-bound sites were identified. Thus the regulatory output mediated by SVP and FLC reveals substantial flexibility, leading to dependent and independent DNA binding that enables additive, cooperative and repressive modes of co-regulation. In total 48 samples; 24 leaf samples corresponding to two different growing conditions, 24 apex samples corresponding to two different growing conditions.
Project description:Plants of three different genotypes (FRI FLC, FRI flc and fri flc) were induced to flowering by shifting from short day conditions to long day conditions. FRI=FRIGIDA, FLC=FLOWERING LOCUS C.
Project description:Synchronized induction of flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana wild type (Col-0) and flowering time mutants (soc1, agl24, fd) by shifting from short day (8 hr light, 16 hr dark; 23C; 65% rel humidity) to long day (16 hr light, 8 hr dark; 23C; 65% rel humidity) for 0, 3, 5, and 7 days. Biotinylated probes were synthesized from RNA isolated from manually disseted shoot meristems and hybridized to Affymetrix ATH1 arrays.
Project description:A general stochastic model is presented that simulates the time course of flowering of individual trees and populations, integrating the synchronization of flowering both between and within trees. Making some hypotheses, a simplified expression of the model, called the 'shoot' model, is proposed, in which the synchronization of flowering both between and within trees is characterized by specific parameters. Two derived models, the 'tree' model and the 'population' model, are presented. They neglect the asynchrony of flowering, respectively, within trees, and between and within trees. Models were fitted and tested using data on flowering of Psidium cattleianum observed at study sites at elevations of 200, 520 and 890 m in Reunion Island. The 'shoot' model fitted the data best and reproduced the strong irregularities in flowering shown by empirical data. The asynchrony of flowering in P. cattleianum was more pronounced within than between trees. Simulations showed that various flowering patterns can be reproduced by the 'shoot' model. The use of different levels of organization of the general model is discussed.
Project description:In flowering plants, light is one of the major environmental stimuli that determine the timing of the transition from the vegetative to reproductive phase. In Arabidopsis, phytochrome B (phyB); phyA; cryptochrome 2; and flavin-binding, KELCH repeat, F-BOX 1 are major photoreceptors that regulate flowering. Unlike phyA; cryptochrome 2; and flavin-binding, KELCH repeat, F-BOX 1, phyB delays flowering mainly by destabilizing the CONSTANS (CO) protein, whose reduction leads to decreased expression of a florigen gene, flowering locus T. However, it remains unclear how the phyB-mediated CO destabilization is mechanistically regulated. Here, we identify a unique phytochrome-dependent late-flowering (PHL) gene, which is mainly involved in the phyB-dependent regulation of flowering. Plants with mutant phl exhibited a late-flowering phenotype, especially under long-day conditions. The late-flowering phenotype of the phl mutant was completely overridden by a phyB mutation, indicating that PHL normally accelerates flowering by countering the inhibitory effect of phyB on flowering. Accordingly, PHL physically interacted with phyB both in vitro and in vivo in a red light-dependent manner. Furthermore, in the presence of phyB under red light, PHL interacted with CO as well. Taken together, we propose that PHL regulates photoperiodic flowering by forming a phyB-PHL-CO tripartite complex.
Project description:<h4>Key message</h4>A novel structural variant was discovered in the FLOWERING LOCUS T orthologue BnaFT.A02 by long-read sequencing. Nested association mapping in an elite winter oilseed rape population revealed that this 288 bp deletion associates with early flowering, putatively by modification of binding-sites for important flowering regulation genes. Perfect timing of flowering is crucial for optimal pollination and high seed yield. Extensive previous studies of flowering behavior in Brassica napus (canola, rapeseed) identified mutations in key flowering regulators which differentiate winter, semi-winter and spring ecotypes. However, because these are generally fixed in locally adapted genotypes, they have only limited relevance for fine adjustment of flowering time in elite cultivar gene pools. In crosses between ecotypes, the ecotype-specific major-effect mutations mask minor-effect loci of interest for breeding. Here, we investigated flowering time in a multiparental mapping population derived from seven elite winter oilseed rape cultivars which are fixed for major-effect mutations separating winter-type rapeseed from other ecotypes. Association mapping revealed eight genomic regions on chromosomes A02, C02 and C03 associating with fine modulation of flowering time. Long-read genomic resequencing of the seven parental lines identified seven structural variants coinciding with candidate genes for flowering time within chromosome regions associated with flowering time. Segregation patterns for these variants in the elite multiparental population and a diversity set of winter types using locus-specific assays revealed significant associations with flowering time for three deletions on chromosome A02. One of these was a previously undescribed 288 bp deletion within the second intron of FLOWERING LOCUS T on chromosome A02, emphasizing the advantage of long-read sequencing for detection of structural variants in this size range. Detailed analysis revealed the impact of this specific deletion on flowering-time modulation under extreme environments and varying day lengths in elite, winter-type oilseed rape.