Project description:Comparison of wild type S. flexneri 2457T gene expression to deletion mutant of S. flexneri 2457T gene S4473 at three growth phases and intracellularly Broth culture was grown to mid-log in LB, intracellular growth was 3 hours post invasion of HCT-8 cell (colonic epithelial cell line).
Project description:Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a food-borne pathogen that causes bloody diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome. Hfq is an sRNA chaperone protein that is involved in post-transcriptional regulation of virulence genes in pathogenic bacteria. In EHEC strain EDL933, Hfq acts a negative regulator of the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) that encodes most of the proteins involved in type three secretion and attaching and effacing lesions. We deleted hfq in E. coli O157:H7 strain 86-24 and compared global transcription profiles of the hfq mutant to the wild type strain in exponential growth phase. Deletion of hfq affected transcription of genes common to nonpathogenic and pathogenic strains of E. coli as well as pathogen-specific genes. Downregulated genes in the hfq mutant included ler as well as genes encoded in LEE2-5 that encode for type three secretion and AE lesion formation. Decreased expression of the LEE genes in the hfq mutant occurred at mid-, late, and stationary growth phases in both LB and DMEM media as detected by qRT-PCR. We also confirmed decreased regulation of the LEE genes by examining secreted proteins and AE lesion formation by the hfq mutant and WT strains. Deletion of hfq also caused decreased expression of the two-component system qseBC involved in inter-kingdom signaling and virulence gene regulation in EHEC as well as an increase in stx2AB expression that encodes for the deadly Shiga toxin. Altogether, these data indicate that Hfq plays a different regulatory role in EHEC 86-24 from what has been reported for EHEC strain EDL933 and that the role of Hfq in EHEC virulence regulation extends beyond the LEE. Comparison of transcriptional regulation of the WT 86-24 isolate and the hfq mutant for the identification of regulated targets that were followed up by functional analysis.
Project description:The goals of this experiment was to obtain a transcriptional profile of EHEC 86-24 upon deletion of fusK or fusR genes. The samples were grown in DMEM until late logaritmic phase then RNA was extracted using the TriZol method.
Project description:Genes identified in ETEC E24377A after interaction with host cells (Caco-2) after time points of 30 min, 60 min and 120 min. Both the adherent and non-adherent cells were profiled as well as E24377a grown only in tissue culture media. Each time and sample has at least duplicate samples
Project description:Atypical EPEC (aEPEC) strains are part of group of pathogens capable of forming the Attaching and Effacing (A/E) lesion. This lesion is characterized by intimate adherence of bacteria to enterocytes, and microvilli destruction. The genes responsible to cause that lesion are located in a pathogenicity island called Locus of Enterocyte Effacement (LEE). Transcription of LEE genes is subjected to various levels of regulation, including quorum sensing through autoinducer 3 (AI-3) system. AI-3 is an aromatic compound with similar characteristics to the epinephrine and norepinephrine hormones. This similarity allows bacteria to use these hormones and AI-3 to perform cell – to – cell signaling processes and bacteria - host communication processes in order to modulate its virulence. AI-3, epinephrine and norepinephrine are detected by a sensor kinase named quorum sensing E.coli regulator (QseC). In order to investigate the role of QseC and epinephrine in atypical EPEC O55:H7 virulence, we constructed a QseC mutant of this strain and performed transcription and phenotypic analyses in the presence or absence of epinephrine. We have reported here, for the first time, the quorum sensing QseC regulation of virulence genes in atypical EPEC. Our results shown that QseC is a global regulator of gene expression in aEPEC and positively regulates flagellar genes, LEE and non-LEE encoded factors. We also have shown that the presence of epinephrine could be sensed by other receptor that acts as negative regulator of LEE4 and LEE5 genes. Comparison of transcriptional regulation of enteropathogenic E. coli serotype O55:H7 wild type and the qseC mutant in the absence or presence of epinephrine signal to identify the regulated targets
Project description:Escherichia coli 8624 and the isogenic mutants in qseE, qseF and qseG are compared to determine the role that each of the genes play in regulation of the transcriptome. These results are verified by qRT-PCR and reveal the important role of this three-component signaling system. Escherichia coli 8624 and the isogenic mutants in qseE, qseF and qseG are compared to determine the role that each of the genes play in regulation of the transcriptome. Single Affymetrix E. coli 2.0 Arrays are used as a starting point for this study and these results are further verified by qRT-PCR.
Project description:Adherence of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains to intestinal epithelia is essential for infection. For enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) serotype O157:H7, we have previously demonstrated that multiple factors govern this pathogen’s adherence to HeLa cells (39). One of these factors is CadA, a lysine decarboxylase, and this protein has been proposed to negatively regulate virulence in several enteric pathogens. In the case of EHEC strains, CadA modulates expression of the intimin, an outer membrane adhesin involved in pathogenesis. Here, we experimentally inactivated cadA in O157:H7 strain 86-24 to investigate the role of this gene in EHEC adhesion to tissue culture monolayers, global gene expression patterns, and colonization of the infant rabbit intestine. As expected, the cadA mutant did not possess lysine decarboxylation activity and was hyper-adherent to tissue-culture cells. Adherence of the cadA mutant was nearly 2-fold greater than that of the wt and complementation of the cadA defect reduced adherence back to wt levels. Furthermore, the cadA mutant affected the expression of intimin protein. Disruption of the eae gene (encoding the intimin protein) in the cadA mutant significantly reduced its adherence to tissue-culture cells. However, adherence of the cadA eae double mutant was greater than that of an 86-24 eae mutant, suggesting that the enhanced adherence of the cadA mutant is not entirely attributable to enhanced expression of intimin in this background. Gene array analysis revealed that the cadA mutation significantly altered EHEC gene expression patterns; expression of 1332 genes was down-regulated and 132 genes up-regulated in the mutant compared to the wild type strain. Interestingly, the gene expression variation shows an EHEC-biased gene alteration including intergenic regions. Two putative adhesins: flagella and F9 fimbriae were up-regulated in the cadA mutant, suggestive of their association with adherence in absence of the Cad regulatory mechanism. Remarkably, in the infant rabbit model, the cadA mutant out-competed the wild type strain in the ileum but not in the cecum or mid-colon, raising the possibility that CadA negatively regulates EHEC pathogenicity in a tissue-specific fashion. Experiment Overall Design: Arrays used as a starting point for further examination of the effects of the cadA deficiency. A limited number of biologically significant phenotypes and gene expression profiles were examined using qRT-PCR
Project description:The ability to respond to stress is at the core of an organism’s survival. The hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine play a central role in stress responses in mammals, which require the synchronized interaction of the whole neuroendocrine system. Bacteria also sense and respond to epinephrine and norepinephrine as a means to gauge the metabolic and immune state of the host. Mammalian adrenergic receptors are G-coupled protein receptors (GPCRs), bacteria, however, sense these hormones through histidine sensor kinases (HKs). HKs autophosphorylate in response to multiple signals and transfer this phosphate to response regulators (RRs). Two bacterial adrenergic receptors have been identified in EHEC, QseC and QseE, with QseE being downstream of QseC in this signaling cascade. We mapped the QseC signaling cascade in the deadly pathogen enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), which exploits this signaling system to promote disease. Through QseC, EHEC activates expression of metabolic, virulence and stress response genes, synchronizing the cell response to these stress hormones. Coordination of these responses is achieved by QseC phosphorylating three of the thirty two EHEC RRs. The QseB RR, which is QseC’s cognate RR, activates the flagella regulon which controls bacteria motility and chemotaxis. The QseF RR, which is phosphorylated by the QseE adrenergic sensor, coordinates expression of virulence genes involved in formation of lesions in the intestinal epithelia by EHEC, and the bacterial SOS stress response. The third RR, KdpE, controls potassium uptake, osmolarity response, and also the formation of lesions in the intestine. Adrenergic regulation of bacterial gene expression shares several parallels with mammalian adrenergic signaling having profound effects in the whole organism. Understanding adrenergic regulation of a bacterial cell is a powerful approach to study the underlying mechanisms of stress and cellular survival. Experiment Overall Design: Microarray comparisons reveal some trends with respect to signaling cascades. Comparative methods were used to identify networks.