Genome-wide transcriptional signatures of migratory flight activity in a globally invasive insect pest
ABSTRACT: RNA-seq to analyse differential expression between moths (Helicoverpa armigera) flown on tethered flight mills. Insects were split into two phenotypes based on the distance flown during the course of a single night. Two separate comparisons were performed. The first compared long-distance fliers from Dafeng (DF) with short-distance fliers from Anyang (AY). These are two separate populations approximately 650km apart in China. The second comparison looked at two flight phenotypes from the same population originating from Northern Greece (GR).
Project description:Honey bees move through a series of in-hive tasks (“nursing”) to outside tasks (“foraging”) that coincident with an intense increase in metabolic activity. Social context can cause worker bees to speed up, or slow down this process and foragers may revert back to their earlier in hive tasks accompanied by reversion to earlier physiological states. To determine if the transcriptional profile of forager bees can revert, or if the effects of flight on gene expression are irreversible, we used whole-genome microarrays. Brain tissue and flight muscle exhibited independent patterns of expression during behavioral transitions, with patterns of expression in the brain reflecting both age and behavior, while flight muscle exhibited primarily age-related patterns of expression. Our data suggest that the transition from little to no flight (nurse) to intense flight (forager), rather than the amount of flight has a major effect on gene expression. Following behavioral reversion there was a partial reversion in gene expression but some aspects of forager expression patterns, such as those for genes involved in immune function, remained. These data suggest an epigenetic control and energy balance role in honey bee functional senescence. Brains and thoraces from the same individuals of all behavioral groups were compared on a total of 132 arrays. The samples were hybridized against each other using a loop design. The groups tested are outlined as follows: Typical aged nurse 'YN' (8-10 days old; <1 day flight experience), Precocious forager 'PF' (8 to 10 days old; 2 to 3 days flight experience), Overaged nurse 'ON' (19 to 22 days old; < 1 day flight experience), Forager - low flight 'TFL' (19 to 22 days old; 2 to 3 days flight experience), Forager - high flight 'TFH' ( 19 to 22 days old; 7 to 9 days flight experience), Forager - old 'OF' (25 to 26 days old; 10 to 12 days flight experience), Reverted nurse 'RN' (25 to 26 days old; 7 to 9 days flight experience). The comparisons are outlined as follows: YN:ON (6 arrays), ON:RN (6 arrays), RN:TFH (6 arrays), TFH:TFL (6 arrays), TFL:PF (6 arrays), PF:YN (6 arrays), ON:TFL (12 arrays), YN:OF (6 arrays), OF:RN (6 arrays), RN:YN (6 arrays). Each comparison was done for individual brains and thoraces. Total: 132 arrays
Project description:We differentiated mouse bone marrow cells in the presence of recombinant macrophage colony stimulating (rM-CSF) factor for 14 days during the flight of space shuttle Space Transportation System (STS)-126. We tested the hypothesis that the receptor expression for M-CSF, c-Fms was reduced. We used flow cytometry to assess molecules on cells that were preserved during flight to define the differentiation state of the developing bone marrow macrophages; including CD11b, CD31, CD44, Ly6C, Ly6G, F4/80, Mac2, c-Fos as well as c-Fms. In addition, RNA was preserved during the flight and was used to perform a gene microarray. We found that there were significant differences in the number of macrophages that developed in space compared to controls maintained on Earth. We found that there were significant changes in the distribution of cells that expressed CD11b, CD31, F4/80, Mac2, Ly6C and c-Fos. However, there were no changes in c-Fms expression and no consistent pattern of advanced or retarded differentiation during space flight. We also found a pattern of transcript levels that would be consistent with a relatively normal differentiation outcome but increased proliferation by the bone marrow macrophages that were assayed after 14 days of space flight. There also was a surprising pattern of space flight influence on genes of the coagulation pathway. These data confirm that a space flight can have an impact on the in vitro development of macrophages from mouse bone marrow cells. MESH:Space Flight/Space Flight Overall design: transcription profiling of 2 total treatment groups and 4 total samples
Project description:In Drosophila, fibrillar flight muscles (IFMs) enable flight, while tubular muscles mediate other body movements. Here, we use RNA-sequencing and isoform-specific reporters to show that spalt major (salm) determines fibrillar muscle physiology by regulating transcription and alternative splicing of a large set of sarcomeric proteins. We identify the RNA binding protein Arrest (Aret, Bruno) as downstream of salm. Aret shuttles between cytoplasm and nuclei, and is essential for myofibril maturation and sarcomere growth of IFMs. Molecularly, Aret regulates IFM-specific transcription and splicing of various sarcomeric targets, including Stretchin and wupA (TnI), and thus maintains muscle fiber integrity. As Aret and its sarcomeric targets are evolutionarily conserved, similar principles may regulate mammalian muscle morphogenesis. 9 samples from Drosophila melanogaster were analyzed in duplicate: control dissected wildtype flight muscle at 30h APF, 72h APF and 0 day adult, jump muscle and whole leg from 1d adult and RNAi/mutant conditions for salm (1d flight muscle) and aret (30h, 72h and 1d flight muscle)
Project description:In prospective human exploration of outer space, the need to maintain a species over several generations under changed gravity conditions may arise. This paper reports the analysis of the third generation of fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster obtained during the 44.5-day space flight (Foton-M4 satellite, 2014, Russia), followed by the fourth generation on Earth and the fifth generation under conditions of a 12-day space flight (2014, in the Russian Segment of the ISS). The obtained results show that it is possible to obtain the third-fifth generations of a complex multicellular Earth organism under changed gravity conditions (in the cycle “weightlessness – Earth – weightlessness”), which preserves fertility and normal development. However, there were a number of changes in the expression levels and content of cytoskeletal proteins that are the key components of the spindle apparatus and the contractile ring of cells. Overall design: Examination of drosophila genes expression change during space flight by RNA-Seq technique
Project description:We have measured flight effect in gene expression using individual-based RNA-seq data from two regional populations of the Glanville fritillary butterfly (Melitaea cinxia). Largest number of differentially expressed genes were between populations (3840 genes) and between males and females (1622 genes). 801 genes had significant flight effect. Enriched GO and KEGG categories among these genes included hypoxia, glycolysis, and TCA cycle. Overall design: RNA-seq from thorax, 85 individuals from two populations in four groups (Flight and Control at two time points 1h and 20h). Populations 'AL' and 'PT' refer to two islands in Baltic Sea. 'AL' stands for Ã...land and 'PT' stands for Pikku TytÃ¤rsaari.
Project description:Muscles organise a pseudo-crystalline array of actin, myosin and titin filaments to build force-producing sarcomeres. To study how sarcomeres are built, we performed mRNA-sequencing of developing Drosophila flight muscles and identified 40 distinct expression profile clusters. Strikingly, two clusters are strongly enriched for sarcomeric components. Temporal gene expression together with detailed morphological analysis enabled us to define two distinct phases of sarcomere development, both of which require the transcriptional regulator Spalt major. During the first sarcomere formation phase, 2.0 µm long immature sarcomeres assemble myofibrils that spontaneously contract. In the second sarcomere maturation phase, sarcomeres grow to their final 3.2 µm length and 1.5 µm diameter and acquire stretch-sensitivity. Interestingly, the final number of myofibrils per flight muscle fiber is determined at the onset of the first phase and remains constant. Together, this defines a biphasic mode of sarcomere and myofibril morphogenesis – a new concept which may also apply to vertebrate muscle or heart development. Overall design: Part I: An 8-point timecourse of wild-type flight muscle development in Drosophila melanogaster was analyzed with duplicates/triplicates for each timepoint Part II: A Mef2-Gal4 x salmIR timecourse in duplicate at 4 timepoints was compared to wild-type flight muscle
Project description:We investigated differentially regulated genes in human Jurkat T lymphocytic cells in 20s and 5min microgravity and in hypergravity and compared expression profiles to identify potential gravity-regulated genes and adaptation processes. Overall design: Human Jurkat T cells were exposed to altered gravity during a parabolic flight
Project description:We investigated differentially regulated genes in human Jurkat T lymphocytic cells in 20s and 5min microgravity and in hypergravity and compared expression profiles to identify potential gravity-regulated genes and adaptation processes. Overall design: Human Jurkat T cells were exposed to altered gravity during a sounding rocket flight
Project description:The study was aimed at bioinformatic analysis of transcriptome changes in lumbar spinal cords of mice after the 30-day space flight aboard biosatellite Bion-M1 and subsequent 7-day re-adaptation to the Earth's gravity when compared with control group.