Transcription profiling by array of a pancreatic cancer cell line treated with 8 different statins compared with untreated or vehicle treated controls
ABSTRACT: Statins, potent lipid-lowering drugs, were also shown to exert anti-proliferative activity. The aim of this study was to identify the biological pathways affected by changes in gene expression activity after statins treatment and to compare the results with observed anti-proliferative effects. The study was performed in vitro on a pancreatic cancer cell line MIA PaCa-2. The changes in gene expression were measured after 24 h of treatment by the statins (atorvastatin, lovastatin, simvastatin, fluvastatin, cerivastatin, pravastatin, rosuvastatin, and pitavastatin). The statins affected expression of a significant number of genes with mevalonate pathway, cell cycle regulation, and DNA replication being the most affected metabolic/signalling pathways.
Project description:Introduction:Statins are known to lower CRP, and this reduction has been suggested to contribute to the established efficacy of these drugs in reducing cardiovascular events and outcomes. However, the exact mechanism underlying the CRP-lowering effect of statins remains elusive. Methods:In order to test the possibility of direct interaction, we performed an <i>in silico</i> study by testing the orientation of the respective ligands (statins) and phosphorylcholine (the standard ligand of CRP) in the CRP active site using Molecular Operating Environment (MOE) software. Results:Docking experiments showed that all statins could directly interact with CRP. Among statins, rosuvastatin had the strongest interaction with CRP (pKi = 16.14), followed by fluvastatin (pKi = 15.58), pitavastatin (pKi = 15.26), atorvastatin (pKi = 14.68), pravastatin (pKi = 13.95), simvastatin (pKi = 7.98) and lovastatin (pKi = 7.10). According to the above-mentioned results, rosuvastatin, fluvastatin, pitavastatin and atorvastatin were found to have stronger binding to CRP compared with the standard ligand phosphocholine (pKi = 14.55). Conclusions:This finding suggests a new mechanism of interaction between statins and CRP that could be independent of the putative cholesterol-lowering activity of statins.
Project description:Introduction:No proven drug and no immunisation are yet available for COVID-19 disease. The SARS-CoV-2 main protease (Mpro), a key coronavirus enzyme, which is a potential drug target, has been successfully crystallised. There is evidence suggesting that statins exert anti-viral activity and may block the infectivity of enveloped viruses. The aim of this study was to assess whether statins are potential COVID-19 Mpro inhibitors, using a molecular docking study. Material and methods:Molecular docking was performed using AutoDock/Vina, a computational docking program. SARS-CoV-2 Mpro was docked with all statins, while antiviral and antiretroviral drugs - favipiravir, nelfinavir, and lopinavir - were used as standards for comparison. Results:The binding energies obtained from the docking of 6LU7 with native ligand favipiravir, nelfinavir, lopinavir, simvastatin, rosuvastatin, pravastatin, pitavastatin, lovastatin, fluvastatin, and atorvastatin were -6.8, -5.8, -7.9, -7.9, -7.0, -7.7, -6.6, -8.2, -7.4, -7.7, and -6.8 kcal/mol, respectively. The number of hydrogen bonds between statins and amino acid residues of Mpro were 7, 4, and 3 for rosuvastatin, pravastatin, and atorvastatin, respectively, while other statins had two hydrogen bonds. Conclusions:These results indicate, based upon the binding energy of pitavastatin, rosuvastatin, lovastatin, and fluvastatin, that statins could be efficient SARS-CoV-2 Mpro inhibitors. This is supported by the fact that the effects of some statins, especially pitavastatin, have a binding energy that is even greater than that of protease or polymerase inhibitors. However, further research is necessary to investigate their potential use as drugs for COVID-19.
Project description:Objective:The drug efficacy may differ among different statins, and evidence from head-to-head comparisons is sparse and inconsistent. The study is aimed at comparing the lipid-lowering/increasing effects of 7 different statins in patients with dyslipidemia, cardiovascular diseases, or diabetes mellitus by conducting systematic review and network meta-analyses (NMA) of the lipid changes after certain statins' use. Methods:In this study, we searched four electronic databases for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published through February 25, 2020, comparing the lipid-lowering efficacy of no less than two of the included statins (or statin vs. placebo). Three reviewers independently extracted data in duplicate. Firstly, mixed treatment overall comparison analyses, in the form of frequentist NMAs, were conducted using STATA 15.0 software. Then, subgroup analyses were conducted according to different baseline diseases. At last, sensitivity analyses were conducted according to age and follow-up duration. The trial was registered with PROSPERO (number CRD42018108799). Results:As a result, seven statin monotherapy treatments in 50 studies (51956 participants) were used for the analyses. The statins included simvastatin (SIM), fluvastatin (FLU), atorvastatin (ATO), rosuvastatin (ROS), lovastatin (LOV), pravastatin (PRA), and pitavastatin (PIT). In terms of LDL-C lowering, rosuvastatin ranked 1st with a surface under cumulated ranking (SUCRA) value of 93.1%. The comparative treatment efficacy for LDL-C lowering was ROS>ATO>PIT>SIM>PRA>FLU>LOV>PLA. All of the other ranking and NMA results were reported in SUCRA plots and league tables. Conclusions:According to the NMAs, it can be concluded that rosuvastatin ranked 1st in LDL-C, ApoB-lowering efficacy and ApoA1-increasing efficacy. Lovastatin ranked 1st in TC- and TG-lowering efficacy, and fluvastatin ranked 1st in HDL-C-increasing efficacy. The results should be interpreted with caution due to some limitations in our review. However, they can provide references and evidence-based foundation for drug selection in both statin monotherapies and statin combination therapies.
Project description:The anti-inflammatory effects of statins (HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors) within the cardiovascular system are well-established; however, their neuroinflammatory potential is unclear. It is currently unknown whether statins' neurological effects are lipid-dependent or due to pleiotropic mechanisms. Therefore, the assumption that all statin compounds will have the same effect within the central nervous system is potentially inappropriate, with no studies to date having compared all statins in a single model. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the effects of the six statins (atorvastatin, fluvastatin, pitavastatin, pravastatin, rosuvastatin, and simvastatin) within a single in vitro model of neuroinflammation. To achieve this, PMA-differentiated THP-1 cells were used as surrogate microglial cells, and LPS was used to induce inflammatory conditions. Here, we show that pretreatment with all statins was able to significantly reduce LPS-induced interleukin (IL)-1? and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-? release, as well as decrease LPS-induced prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Similarly, global reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) production were decreased following pretreatment with all statins. Based on these findings, it is suggested that more complex cellular models should be considered to further compare individual statin compounds, including translation into in vivo models of acute and/or chronic neuroinflammation.
Project description:Statins reduce cardiovascular-related morbidity and mortality, but their effects on inflammation in atherosclerosis are not fully understood. We investigated whether statins can modulate cytotoxic functions of CD4 T cells in acute coronary syndrome (ACS).Fresh CD4 T cells were isolated from 55 patients with ACS without statin treatment on admission and from 34 age-matched controls. CD4 T cells collected from ACS patients induced endothelial cell apoptosis significantly more than control T cells. The TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) receptor DR5 was strongly upregulated on endothelial cells, and TRAIL-specific antibodies effectively blocked CD4 T cell-mediated apoptosis, indicating that T cell-mediated endothelial death was dependent on the TRAIL pathway. Expression of both the activating antigen CD69 and TRAIL was enhanced on ACS T cells. In in-vitro assays rosuvastatin, fluvastatin, and pitavastatin directly blocked CD4 T cell-mediated endothelial cell apoptosis and reduced T cell-expression of CD69 and TRAIL through TCR-induced Extracellar signal-Regulated Kinases (ERK) activation.Activated CD4 T cells expressing TRAIL are enriched in the blood of ACS patients and induce endothelial injury, which may contribute to the destabilization of the plaque. Early statin therapy may suppress T cell-mediated endothelial cell damage in atherosclerotic plaques and thus prevent cardiovascular events.
Project description:Hydroxymethylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) have been shown to overcome tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) resistance in epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells in vivo and in vitro. However, little is known about the putative induction of non-apoptotic cell death pathways by statins. We investigated the effects of pitavastatin and fluvastatin alone or in combination with erlotinib in three NSCLC cell lines and examined the activation of different cell death pathways. We assessed apoptosis via fluorometric caspase assay and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP) cleavage. Furthermore, annexinV/propidium iodide (PI) flow cytometry was performed. Small molecule inhibitors benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethyl ketone (zVAD), necrostatin 1 (Nec1), ferrostatin 1 (Fer1), Ac-Lys-Lys-Norleucinal (Calp1) were used to characterise cell death pathway(s) putatively (co-)activated by pitavastatin/erlotinib co-treatment. Synergism was calculated by additivity and isobolographic analyses. Pitavastatin and fluvastatin induced cell death in EGFR TKI resistant NSCLC cells lines A549, Calu6 and H1993 as shown by caspase 3 activation and PARP cleavage. Co-treatment of cells with pitavastatin and the EGFR TKI erlotinib resulted in synergistically enhanced cytotoxicity compared to pitavastatin monotherapy. Flow cytometry indicated the induction of alternative regulated cell death pathways. However, only co-treatment with mevalonic acid (Mev) or the pan-caspase inhibitor zVAD could restore cell viability. The results show that cytotoxicity mediated by statin/erlotinib co-treatment is synergistic and can overcome erlotinib resistance in K-ras mutated NSCLC and relies only on apoptosis.
Project description:The increasing usage of statins (the 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors) has revealed a number of unexpected beneficial effects, including a reduction in cancer risk.We investigated the direct anticancer effects of different statins approved for clinical use on human breast and brain cancer cells. We also explored the effects of statins on cancer cells using in silico simulations.In vitro studies showed that cerivastatin, pitavastatin, and fluvastatin were the most potent anti-proliferative, autophagy inducing agents in human cancer cells including stem cell-like primary glioblastoma cell lines. Consistently, pitavastatin was more effective than fluvastatin in inhibiting U87 tumour growth in vivo. Intraperitoneal injection was much better than oral administration in delaying glioblastoma growth. Following statin treatment, tumour cells were rescued by adding mevalonate and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate. Knockdown of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate synthetase-1 also induced strong cell autophagy and cell death in vitro and reduced U87 tumour growth in vivo. These data demonstrate that statins main effect is via targeting the mevalonate synthesis pathway in tumour cells.Our study demonstrates the potent anticancer effects of statins. These safe and well-tolerated drugs need to be further investigated as cancer chemotherapeutics in comprehensive clinical studies.
Project description:Statins have been recommended for use in atherosclerotic cardio-cerebrovascular disease (CCVD). The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of five different types of statin in the secondary prevention of CCVD in patients. This study retrospectively designed and analyzed data from the National Health Insurance Service-National Health in Korea. Participants aged 40 to 69 years were categorized into five statin groups (atorvastatin, rosuvastatin, pitavastatin, simvastatin, and pravastatin). The primary composite outcome was defined as recurrence of CCVD or all causes of death. Cox proportional hazard regression models were adopted after stepwise adjustments for confounders to investigate the difference in efficacy among the different statins. Of the 755 final participants, 48 patients experienced primary composite outcomes. After adjustments, the hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for primary composite outcomes of atorvastatin, pitavastatin, and rosuvastatin groups were 0.956 (0.456-2.005), 1.347 (0.354-5.116), and 0.943 (0.317-2.803), respectively, when compared with the simvastatin group. There were no significant differences between the statins in efficacy for preventing recurrence of CCVD events and/or death in CCVD patients.
Project description:To evaluate evidence that statins reduce cardiovascular risk in patients living with HIV.Moderate to high-dose atorvastatin and rosuvastatin appear to reduce noncalcified coronary plaque volume and slow progression of carotid intima-media thickness in patients with treated HIV infection. Expected lipoprotein changes with statins on the background of modern antiretroviral therapy are similar to the general population. In addition to lipids, the statin benefit may be mediated in part by improvements in vascular inflammation and levels of T-cell and monocyte activation. One concern is the potential for rosuvastatin to cause insulin resistance. Decisions to prescribe statins must be done in the context of global risk assessment, but traditional risk calculators such as the Framingham Risk Score or the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association pooled-risk equations underestimate risk in this population. Furthermore, many patients with subclinical disease would not be recommended for statins according to the most recent American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guidelines.Statins are likely to improve cardiovascular outcomes for patients with HIV, but results of the first outcome study are not expected until 2020. In the meantime, clinicians should individualize statin prescriptions, and should consider using more potent statins (rosuvastatin, atorvastatin, and pitavastatin) when possible.
Project description:Statin treatment of hypercholesterolemia is accompanied also with depletion of the mevalonate intermediates, including farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP) necessary for proper function of small GTPases. These include Ras proteins, prevalently mutated in pancreatic cancer. In our study, we evaluated the effect of three key intermediates of the mevalonate pathway on GFP-K-Ras protein localization and the gene expression profile in pancreatic cancer cells after exposure to individual statins.These effects were tested on MiaPaCa-2 human pancreatic cancer cells carrying a K-Ras activating mutation (G12C) after exposure to individual statins (20 ?M). The effect of statins (atorvastatin, lovastatin, simvastatin, fluvastatin, cerivastatin, rosuvastatin, and pitavastatin) and mevalonate intermediates on GFP-K-Ras protein translocation was analyzed using fluorescence microscopy. The changes in gene expression induced in MiaPaCa-2 cells treated with simvastatin, FPP, GGPP, and their combinations with simvastatin were examined by whole genome DNA microarray analysis.All tested statins efficiently inhibited K-Ras protein trafficking from cytoplasm to the cell membrane of the MiaPaCa-2 cells. The inhibitory effect of statins on GFP-K-Ras protein trafficking was partially prevented by addition of any of the mevalonate pathway's intermediates tested. Expressions of genes involved in metabolic and signaling pathways modulated by simvastatin treatment was normalized by the concurrent addition of FPP or GGPP. K-Ras protein trafficking within the pancreatic cancer cells is effectively inhibited by the majority of statins; the inhibition is eliminated by isoprenoid intermediates of the mevalonate pathway.Our data indicate that the anticancer effects of statins observed in numerous studies to a large extent are mediated through isoprenoid intermediates of the mevalonate pathway, as they influence expression of genes involved in multiple intracellular pathways.