Microarray analysis of chick embryonic tissues: gastrulation, neural tube/notochord and limb development.
ABSTRACT: Microarray analysis of chick embryo tissues: Hamburger Hamilton (HH) stage 3+/4 and HH6 Hensen’s node, HH 3+/4 posterior primitive streak, notochord with ventral neural tube at HH10-11, dorsal neural tube at HH10-11 and anterior and posterior thirds of the wing bud at stages HH20-21 and HH24.
Project description:Voluntary exercise reduces the risk of cancer and lowers the risk of disease recurrence. Yet the mechanisms for this protection remain to be elucidated. Here we demonstrate that exercise halves tumor growth through an exercise-dependent mobilization and intratumoral infiltration of NK cells in malignant melanoma. Using voluntary wheel running, we show that exercise prior to and during B16 tumor challenge reduced tumor growth by 67%, and this reduction was associated with increased inflammation and immune cell infiltrates, especially NK cells, in the tumors from exercising mice. Depletion of NK cells blunted the exercise-dependent reduction in tumor growth. Moreover, during exercise, NK cells were engaged through an epinephrine-dependent mobilization to the circulation and redistributed to peripheral tissues through an IL-6 dependent mechanism. This study highlights the importance of exercise-dependent immune regulation in the control of malignant melanoma Gene expression profile of melanoma tumor tissue from two groups of exercise and non-exercise mice
Project description:Severe infections and sepsis is an increasing clinical problem that cause prolonged morbidity and substantial mortality. At present, antibiotics are essentially the only pharmacological treatment for sepsis. The incidence of antibiotic resistance is increasing and it is therefore critical to find new therapies for sepsis. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a major cause of septic mortality. Neutrophils play a major role in defense against bacterial infections. We have recently shown that a saturated high fat diet decreases survival in septic mice, but the mechanisms behind remain elusive. The aim of the present study was to investigate how the dietary fat composition affects survival and neutrophils function after experimental septic infection in mice. We found that, after S. aureus infection, mice fed polyunsaturated high fat diet (HFD/P) for 8 weeks had increased septic survival and decreased bacterial load compared with mice fed saturated HFD (HFD/S), and similar to that of mice given low fat diet (LFD). Furthermore, uninfected mice fed HFD/P had increased number of Ly6G+ neutrophils in bone marrow. In addition, mice fed HFD/P had a higher number Ly6G+ neutrophils recruited to the site of inflammation after peritoneal injection of thioglycollate. In conclusion, polyunsaturated dietary fat increased both survival and the efficiency of the bacterial clearance during septic S. aureus infection. Moreover, this diet enhanced the number and chemotaxis of neutrophils, a key component of the immune response to S. aureus infections. Mice (non-infected) fed saturated high fat diet, low fat diet, or polyunsaturated high fat diet
Project description:At cell harvest, a subset of cells was stored at -20oC in RNALater. Total RNA from 5 X 106 cells were purified using Ribopure (Ambion) according to vendor recommended protocols. Total RNA quality was assessed on RNA 6000 Nano Chips (Agilent) using a Bioanalyzer (Agilent). Approximately 3ug of total RNA for each cell type was sent to the Center for Array Technology (CAT) for labeling and hybridization to Affymetrix Human Exon 1.0 ST arrays. Briefly, a Whole Transcript Sense Target Labeling Assay (Affymetrix) was used by the CAT to reduce the rRNA, perform in vitro transcription (IVT) and create labeled sense strand DNA for hybridization to the arrays. Hybridizations were carried out according the manufacturers protocol. Intensity files from the scanned exon arrays were sent to our lab for analysis at the exon level (Affymetrix ExACT 1.2.1 software). Samples were quantile normalized with PM-GCBG background correction and PLIER (Probe Logarithmic Intensity Error) summarized. For data usage terms and conditions, please refer to http://www.genome.gov/27528022 and http://www.genome.gov/Pages/Research/ENCODE/ENCODEDataReleasePolicyFinal2008.pdf Continuing exon profiling of ENCODE approved cell types, these coincide with DNaseI hypersensitivity sequencing assays, ChIP-seq (histone modifications, transcription factors), and other ENCODE assay types.
Project description:Vaccine research today is focused on using safer, highly purified or recombinant antigens with poor immunogenicity, which has created a need for potent adjuvants. Rational design of effective and safe mucosal adjuvants for human use necessitates a thorough understanding of the mode of action of successful candidate adjuvants. We used microarray to comprehend the molecular signatures of mucosal adjuvants in the mouse vagina. The adjuvants studied, CpG-ODN and ‚âà√≠¬¨¬±-GalCer have previously been shown to be potent mucosal adjuvants in mice when administrered together with a glycoprotein from HSV-2. Two individual experiments were performed, called ES1 and ES2, each experiment contained 4 groups of mice. All mice were pre-treated with progesteron (DP) before intravaginally recieveing either CpG ODN, alpha-GalCer or their respective buffers, PBS and PBS/Tween. Vaginas were excised at 3 different time-points; 4h, 24h and 48h following adjuvant delivery.
Project description:Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disorder caused by deficiency of imprinted gene expression from the paternal chromosome 15q11-15q13 and clinically characterized by neonatal hypotonia, short stature, cognitive impairment, hypogonadism, hyperphagia, morbid obesity and diabetes. Previous clinical studies suggest that a defect in energy metabolism may be involved in the pathogenesis of PWS. Assessment of enzyme activities of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes in the brain, heart, liver and muscle were assessed. We used microarrays to detail the global programme of gene expression underlyingthe PWS and identified distinct classes of disregulated genes during this process. Skeletal (quadriceps) muscle Vastus Lateralis and whole brain samples from the mutant mice and their wild-type age-matched littermates were analyzed by microarray technology using the Mouse Genome 430 2.0 arrays (Affymetrix).
Project description:We screened for differentially expressed genes in the developing notochord using the Affymetrix microarray system in Xenopus laevis. At late gastrula, we dissected four regions from the embryo, anterior mesoderm, posterior mesoderm, notochord and presomitic mesoderm. Three types of comparison were carried out to generate a list of predominantly notochord expressed genes: (1) Posterior mesoderm vs. anterior mesoderm; notochord genes are expected to be increased since the notochord is located in the posterior mesoderm. (2) Posterior mesoderm vs. whole embryos; notochord genes are expected to be increased. (3) Notochord vs. somite. This comparison sub-divided the group of posterior mesodermal genes identified in (1) and (2). All tissues are dissected using tungsten needles. We first dissected dorsal tissue above the archenteron from late gastrula to early neurula. To loosen tissue, we treated the dissected dorsal explant in a 1% cysteine solution (pH 7.4) and removed the neuroectodermal layer. Anterior mesoderm was dissected corresponding to about the anterior one-third of the archenteron roof, and the rest was collected as posterior mesoderm. The posterior mesodermal explant was dissected into notochord and somites, following a clearly visible border between the two tissues. The accuracy of all dissection was confirmed by RT-PCR of marker genes.
Project description:Characterize the transcriptional response to INO2 and INO4 expression level (INO-level) and efficient factor We used microarrays to capture the global responses of INO-level in Carbon and Nitrogen limited growth.
Project description:Chronic Otitis Media (OM) develops after sustained inflammation and is characterized by secretory middle ear epithelial metaplasia and effusion, most frequently mucoid. Non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi), the most common acute OM pathogen, is known to activate inflammation and mucin expression in vitro and in animal models of OM. The goals of this study were to: examine expression profiling epithelial effects of NTHi challenge in murine middle ears. We used microarrays to detail examine the global programme of gene expression underlying epithelial effects of NTHi challenge in murine middle ears during this study. Weekly transtympanic inoculation of Balb/c mice with 300 µg/ml of NTHi lysates vs saline was performed. Bacteria were grown on chocolate agar at 37ºC in 5% CO2 overnight and inoculated in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth supplemented with 3.5 mg of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide per ml. After overnight incubation, bacteria were subcultured into 5 ml of fresh brain heart infusion (BHI) and upon reaching log phase growth, NTHi were washed and suspended in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) followed by sonication for lysis. Three transtympanic inoculation of 6 Balb/c mice middle ears (3 animals, 6 ears) with 50 uL of 300 ug/ml of NTHi bacterial lysate and 6 Balb/c mice middle ears (3 animals, 6 ears) with 50 uL of 1X phosphate buffered saline (PBS) were carried out weekly over 4 weeks (injection on days 7, 14, and 21). On day 28, the mice were euthanized and their bullae harvested. Expression microarray analysis was performed at 1 and 7 days. Microarray findings were validated in independent animal samples and in a cultured murine middle ear epithelial cell (mMEEC) line.
Project description:Fragile X syndrome and tuberous sclerosis are genetic syndromes that both have a high rate of co-morbidity with autism spectrum disorders. Several lines of evidences suggest that these two monogenic disorders may converge at a molecular level through the dysfunction of activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. We utilized mouse models of these monogenic disorders to identify genome-wide transcriptional changes in cerebellum and blood and characterize the (dis-)similarity of their molecular signatures. Differentially expressed genes and enriched pathways were distinct for the two mouse models examined, with the exception of immune system related pathways. In the cerebellum of the Fmr1 knockout (Fmr1-KO) model, the neuroactive ligand receptor interaction pathway and gene sets associated with synaptic plasticity such as long term potentiation, gap junction, and axon guidance were the most significantly perturbed pathways. The phosphatidylinositol signaling pathway was significantly dysregulated in both blood and brain of Fmr1-KO mice. In both the blood and brain of the Tsc2 heterozygous mouse model, immune system related pathways, genes encoding ribosomal proteins, and glycolipid metabolism pathways were significantly perturbed. Our data suggest that distinct molecular pathways may be involved in autism spectrum disorders with known but different genetic causes, and that blood gene expression profiles of Fmr1-knockout and Tsc2+/- mice mirror some, but not all, of the perturbed molecular pathways in the brain. For the Fmr1-KO model, 10 mice, consisting of 5 KO and 5 WT mice, were profiled. Thus, 10 pairs of blood and cerebella samples were profiled. Likewise, for the Tsc+/- model, 3 transgenic and 3 WT mice were sacrificed and paired blood and cerebella samples were prepared for gene expression profiling. All samples were profiled using the Affymetrix Mouse Gene ST 1.0 ST arrays. Three factors—tissue (i.e. blood vs. cerebellum), treatment (i.e. knockout vs. wildtype), and genetic background (Fmr1-KO vs. Tsc2+/-)—were analyzed with analysis of variance (ANOVA). Subsequently, we compared blood and brain gene expression changes in Fmr1 and Tsc2 knockout mice models using WT littermates as controls using t-tests with unequal variances. The false discovery rate (FDR) was calculated using Storey and Tibshirani’s method.