Project description:The experiment aimed at refining the classification of endometrial cancer by profiling somatic copy number aberrations (SCNAs). SCNAs affecting chromosome 1q32.1 significantly correlated with worse survival and functional validation of a plausible oncogene showed MDM4 as an oncogenic driver in 1q32.1 and a putative therapeutic target for NSMP ECs.
Project description:The impact of different carcinogenic exposures on the specific patterns of somatic mutations in human tumors remains unclear. To clarify this issue, we profiled 209 cholangiocarcinomas (CCAs) from Asia and Europe, including 108 cases caused by liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini (OV)-infection and 101 cases due to non-OV etiologies. Whole-exome (N = 15) and prevalence screening (N = 194) revealed recurrent somatic mutations in BAP1 and ARID1A, neither of which has been previously reported to be mutated in CCA. Comparisons between intrahepatic OV and non-OV CCAs demonstrated statistically significant different mutation patterns: BAP1 and IDH1/2 were more frequently mutated in non-OV CCAs, while TP53 displayed the reciprocal pattern. Functional studies demonstrated tumor suppressive roles of BAP1 and ARID1A, establishing the role of chromatin modulators in CCA pathogenesis. These findings indicate that different causative etiologies may induce distinct somatic alterations even within the same tumor type. Affymetrix SNP6 arrays were performed according to the manufacturer's directions on DNA extracted from the 15 tumors and the 15 matched normal discovery samples.
Project description:Type II Enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma (Type II EATL) is an aggressive intestinal T-cell lymphoma with poor prognosis and has not been molecularly profiled. Through targeted amplicon sequencing, we identified a large portion of Type II EATL samples that harbor mutations in the STAT5B, JAK3 and GNAI2 genes. Genome-wide DNA copy number profiling of Type II EATL tumors and matched normal samples was performed to determine copy-number changes in this disease. Affymetrix SNP6 arrays were performed according to the manufacturer's directions on gDNA extracted from 4 tumors and 4 matched whole blood samples.
Project description:B cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (B-NHL) consists of different pathological entities that are frequently characterized by distinct genetic alterations. However, the knowledge on these genetic lesions in B-NHL is still limited. In order to obtain a more comprehensive view of genetic lesions in B-NHL, we performed genome-wide analysis of copy number (CN) alterations as well as allelic imbalances using Affymetrix SNP arrays with B-NHL cases, including SNP array data were analyzed with CNAG/AsCNAR software, which enabled sensitive detection of CN alterations in allele-specific manner, and thus allelic imbalances, without depending on availability of paired normal controls. Most frequent numerical abnormalities in B-NHL were gains of chromosomes 3 and 18, although gains of chromosome 3 were less prominent in FL. Chromosomal deletions that lead to loss of heterozygosity (LOH) were commonly found in 1p, 6q and 10q. High-grade amplifications and homozygous deletions frequently provide a clue to identify relevant gene targets. In our series, 12 loci of high-grade amplifications and 14 loci of homozygous deletions were identified, and helped to specify the candidate genes. These regions included, FCGR2B amplified in 5 cases of DLBCL, RERE amplified in 2 cases of FL and CDKN2A/CDKN2B deleted in 9 cases of DLBCL. To identify oncogenic lesions in neuroblastoma, we performed a genome-wide analysis of primary tumor samples from 241 lymphoma samples (238 fresh tumors and 3 cell lines) using high-density 50K and/or 250K SNP arrays (Affymetrix GeneChip).
Project description:Philadelphia-chromosome negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) including polycythemia vera, essential thrombocythemia and primary myelofibrosis show an inherent tendency for transformation into leukemia (MPN-blast phase), which is hypothesized to be accompanied by acquisition of additional genomic lesions. We, therefore, examined chromosomal abnormalities by high-resolution single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array in 88 MPN patients, as well as 71 cases with MPN-blast phase, and correlated these findings with their clinical parameters. Frequent genomic alterations were found in MPN after leukemic transformation with up to 3-fold more genomic changes per sample compared to samples in chronic phase (p<0.001). We identified commonly altered regions involved in disease progression including established targets (ETV6, TP53 and RUNX1), as well as new candidate genes on 7q, 16q, 19p and 21q. Moreover, trisomy 8 or amplification of 8q24 (MYC) was almost exclusively detected in JAK2V617F(-) cases with MPN-blast phase. Remarkably, copy-number neutral-loss of heterozygosity (CNN-LOH) on either 7q or 9p including homozygous JAK2V617F was related to decreased survival after leukemic transformation (p=0.01 and p=0.016, respectively). Our high density SNP-array analysis of MPN genomes in the chronic compared to leukemic stage identified novel target genes and provided prognostic insights associated with the evolution to leukemia. Keywords: SNP-chip To identify oncogenic lesions in MPD, we performed a genome-wide analysis of primary MPD samples using high-density SNP arrays (Affymetrix GeneChip).
Project description:We employ a massively parallel reporter assay (MPRA) to measure the ex vivo activities of hundreds of K562 and HepG2 enhancers with known transcription factor motif instances. For seven selected motifs that correspond to known or predicted activators and repressors in the two cell types, we make directed modifications of the bases corresponding to these motifs and observe the changes in enhancer activity. Reporter mRNA-seq from HepG2 and K562 cells transfected with a ~55,000-plex MPRA plasmid pool containing 5,418 mutated human enhancer sequences, each linked to 10 distinct 10-nt tags. The reporter mRNA tags facilitate quantitation of their abundances. The same tags were also sequenced from the transfected MPRA plasmid pool to facilitate normalization to plasmid copy numbers.
Project description:We apply a massively parallel reporter assay (MPRA) that relies on mRNA and plasmid tag sequencing (Tag-Seq) to compare the regulatory activities of more than 27,000 distinct variants of two inducible enhancers in human cells: a synthetic cAMP-regulated enhancer and the virus-inducible interferon beta enhancer. The resulting data define accurate maps of functional transcription factor binding sites in both enhancers at single-nucleotide resolution and can be used the to train quantitative sequence-activity models (QSAMs). Reporter Tag-Seq from HEK293 cells transfected with each of six MPRA plasmid pools, with and without stimulation (forskolin or Sendai virus). The reporter mRNAs contain unique 10 nucleotide tags that facilitates quantitation of their abundances. The same tags were also sequenced from each ransfected plasmid pool to facilitate normalization to plasmid copy numbers. The reporter constructs were designed according to two different mutagenesis strategies: 'single-hit scanning' and 'multi-hit sampling'. The specific variants are included in the processed data files.