RNA-seq of different Plodia interpunctella tissues for males and females
ABSTRACT: We sequenced mRNA of adult Plodia interpunctella males and females at 1 day after eclosion for the tissues/composite structures head, thorax, and gonads, as well as sexed 5th instar larvae heads. The purpose of the study was to compare overall gene expression patterns of the Z chromosome and the autosomes between males and females in order to assess the status of dosage compensation.
Project description:We sequenced mRNA of adult Bombyx mori males and females at 1 day after eclosion for the tissues/composite structures head, thorax, and gonads. The purpose of the study was to compare overall gene expression patterns of the Z chromosome and the autosomes between males and females in order to assess the status of dosage compensation.
Project description:Sexually dimorphic phenotypes arise largely from sex-specific gene expression, which has mainly been characterized in sexually naïve adults. However, we expect sexual dimorphism in transcription to be dynamic and dependent on factors such as reproductive status. Mating induces many behavioral and physiological changes distinct to each sex and is therefore expected to activate regulatory changes in many sex-biased genes. Here, we first characterized sexual dimorphism in gene expression in Callosobruchus maculatus seed beetles. We then examined how females and males respond to mating and how it affects sex-biased expression, both in sex-limited (abdomen) and sex-shared (head and thorax) tissues. Mating responses were largely sex-specific and, as expected, females showed more genes responding compared with males (?2,000 vs. ?300 genes in the abdomen, ?500 vs. ?400 in the head and thorax, respectively). Of the sex-biased genes present in virgins, 16% (1,041 genes) in the abdomen and 17% (243 genes) in the head and thorax altered their relative expression between the sexes as a result of mating. Sex-bias status changed in 2% of the genes in the abdomen and 4% in the head and thorax following mating. Mating responses involved de-feminization of females and, to a lesser extent, de-masculinization of males relative to their virgin state: mating decreased rather than increased dimorphic expression of sex-biased genes. The fact that regulatory changes of both types of sex-biased genes occurred in both sexes suggests that male- and female-specific selection is not restricted to male- and female-biased genes, respectively, as is sometimes assumed.
Project description:Polygalacturonase (PG) is an enzyme in the salivary glands of piercing-sucking mirid bugs (Hemiptera: Miridae) that plays a key role in plant feeding and injury. By constructing a full-length cDNA library, we cloned and characterized 14 PG genes from the salivary glands of Apolygus lucorum, a pestiferous mirid bug in cotton, fruit trees and other crops in China. BLAST search analysis showed that the amino acid sequences deduced from transcripts of the PG genes were closely related to PGs from other mirid bugs. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the PGs of mirid bugs had six main branches, PG1-PG6 (Genbank accession numbers: KF881899~KF881912). We investigated the mRNA expression patterns of the A. lucorum PG genes using real-time PCR. All 14 PGs were expressed significantly higher in the salivary glands than in other tissues (head, thorax, abdomen, leg and wing). For eggs and nymphs, the expression levels of these PGs were much higher in the 5th instar stage than in the egg, and 1st and 3rd instar stages. The PG expression levels in 1-day-old adults were very low, and increased in 5, 20 and 30-day-old adults. Additionally, PG expression levels were generally similar between males and females. The possible physiological functions of PGs in A. lucorum were discussed.
Project description:Documenting the different social and behavioural contexts that vocalisations are produced in remains an important step towards understanding the functional relevance of specific call types in a given species' vocal repertoire. In this study we investigated whether seasonal differences and the presence or absence of male and female conspecifics influence the production of male giant panda vocal signals. To this end, captive male giant pandas were observed during and outside of the breeding season in three social contexts: only male conspecific neighbours, only female conspecific neighbours, and a context with no neighbours. We found that males were more likely to bleat, chirp, honk and moan during the breeding season, and showed a tendency to growl more outside of the reproductive period. The contextual analysis revealed that bleats were more likely to be produced by males when opposite-sexed conspecifics are in close attendance during the breeding season. Conversely, males were more likely to chirp when neighboured by males than females or no neighbours. In addition, males were more likely to honk in the absence of neighbouring conspecifics during the breeding season, raising the possibility that these calls function to signal location and gain the attention of potential mates. Moans were produced more often when male giant pandas had male than female neighbours during the breeding season, which may reflect mild aggression towards these same-sexed rivals, whereas the production of barks and growls did not vary according to season or the sex of conspecific neighbours. Our findings underscore the importance of male giant panda bleats for coordinating reproduction and promoting contact with potential mating partners in this non-gregarious species, and yield fresh insights into the function of male honks that warrant further investigation. They also provide a basis for comparison with free-ranging giant panda vocal behaviour that could potentially inform conservation efforts.
Project description:Sexual dimorphism is a common in the animal kingdom and is often linked to mate choice or competition for mates in polygynous mating systems. However, sexual dimorphism is less common in species that form heterosexual pairs and has not been recorded in pair-forming coral-reef fish. Here we demonstrate a pronounced morphological difference between males and females in the humphead bannerfish (Heniochus varius)-a pair-forming coral reef butterflyfish. Males of paired individuals collected in Kimbe Bay, Papua New Guinea had substantially larger hump and horn protrusions on their heads than females. Fish were also sexed, sized and aged to determine the reproductive and demographic basis of the pairing behaviour. H. varius pairs were exclusively heterosexual and were assorted strongly by total length and slightly less so by age. Females in pairs were generally the same size as male partners, but were frequently older by a year and sometimes more. Hump and horn lengths increased proportionally to body-size in both sexes, with horns growing at a greater rate among males. These findings suggest that H. varius form pairs primarily for reproductive purposes, with selection via a size-assortative process that likely also extends to selection for larger hump and horn protrusions among males. The larger humps and horns in males appear to be the first recorded example of a secondary sexual morphological characteristic in a pair-forming coral reef fish species.
Project description:The extinct Huia (Heteralocha acutirostris) of New Zealand represents the most extreme example of beak dimorphism known in birds. We used a combination of nuclear genotyping methods, molecular sexing, and morphometric analyses of museum specimens collected in the late 19(th) and early 20(th) centuries to quantify the sexual dimorphism and population structure of this extraordinary species. We report that the classical description of Huia as having distinctive sex-linked morphologies is not universally correct. Four Huia, sexed as females had short beaks and, on this basis, were indistinguishable from males. Hence, we suggest it is likely that Huia males and females were indistinguishable as juveniles and that the well-known beak dimorphism is the result of differential beak growth rates in males and females. Furthermore, we tested the prediction that the social organisation and limited powers of flight of Huia resulted in high levels of population genetic structure. Using a suite of microsatellite DNA loci, we report high levels of genetic diversity in Huia, and we detected no significant population genetic structure. In addition, using mitochondrial hypervariable region sequences, and likely mutation rates and generation times, we estimated that the census population size of Huia was moderately high. We conclude that the social organization and limited powers of flight did not result in a highly structured population.
Project description:Native breeds of ducks have been the subject of many studies in the past, yet the relevant knowledge is still incomplete and needs to be further expanded. The objective of this study was to provide information about differences in growth performance, dressing percentage, carcass composition and digestive morphometry among three lines of Pekin ducks from conservation flocks raised in Poland. The study used 180 sexed Pekin ducks-30 males and 30 females of line P33 (ducks of Polish origin), 30 males and 30 females of line P8 (ducks of Danish origin), and 30 males and 30 females of line P9 (ducks of French origin). Throughout the study (49 d), ducks were confined indoors in six pens. Birds were fed complete commercial diets ad libitum and had unrestricted access to water. The compared lines of ducks differed significantly in body weight from 1 to 49 d of age except of ducks of both sexes at 14 d. At 49 d of age, significant differences were observed between the tested ducks in all the body measurements. Duck genotype had a significant effect on preslaughter body weight, carcass weight and breast muscle, neck and remainders contents, caeca length, liver weight and gizzard percentage. The results show that the tested ducks were significantly different and unique, mainly in terms of the body biometric characteristics.
Project description:Background:The sex of an individual organism plays such an important role in its life cycle that researchers must know a bird's sex to interpret key aspects of its biology. The sexes of dimorphic species can be easily distinguished, but sexing monomorphic bird species often requires expensive and time-consuming molecular methods. The Little Stint (Calidris minuta) is a numerous species, monomorphic in plumage but showing a small degree of reversed sexual size dimorphism. Females are larger than males but the ranges of their measurements overlap, making Little Stints difficult to sex in the field. Our aim was to develop reliable sexing criteria for Little Stints in different stages of primary moult during their stay on the non-breeding grounds in South Africa using DNA-sexed individuals and discriminant function analysis. Methods:We caught 348 adult Little Stints in 2008-2016 on their non-breeding grounds at Barberspan Bird Sanctuary. To molecularly identify the birds' sex we used P2/P8 primers and DNA isolated from blood samples collected in the field. We used Storer's dimorphism index to assess the degree of sexual size dimorphism. Then we divided our sample into two groups: before or during and after primary moult. For each group we developed two functions: one using wing length only and the other a combination of morphometric features including wing, tarsus and total head length. Then we used a stepwise procedure to check which combination of measurements best discriminated sexes. To validate our result we used a jack-knife cross-validation procedure and Cohen-kappa statistics. Results:All the morphometric features we measured were bigger in DNA-sexed females than in males. Birds with fresh primaries had on average 2.3 mm longer wings than those with worn primaries. A discriminant function using wing length (D1) correctly sexed 78.8% of individuals before moult, and a stepwise analysis showed that a combination of wing length and tarsus (D2) correctly identified the sex of 82.7% of these birds. For birds with freshly moulted primaries a function using wing length (D3) correctly classified 83.4% of the individuals, and a stepwise analysis revealed that wing and total head length (D4) classified 84.7%. Discussion:Sexual size differences in Little Stints might be linked to their phylogenetics and breeding biology. Females are bigger, which increases their fecundity; males are smaller, which increases their manoeuverability during display flights and hence their mating success. Little Stints show an extreme lack of breeding site fidelity so we did not expect a geographical cline in their biometrics. Sexing criteria available for Little Stints in the literature were developed using museum specimens, which often shrink, leading to misclassification of live birds. The sexing criteria we developed can be used for studies on Little Stints at their non-breeding grounds and on past data, but should be applied cautiously because of the overlapping ranges.
Project description:Comparison of females mated to males null for Sex-Peptide (SP0, Liu, H. and E. Kubli, Sex-peptide is the molecular basis of the sperm effect in Drosophila melanogaster. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2003. 100(17): p. 9929-33) or to control, Sex-Peptide producing, males. Comparisons were made at 3 and 6 hours after mating, in dissected Head-Thorax body parts.
Project description:Comparison of females mated to males null for Sex-Peptide (SP0, Liu, H. and E. Kubli, Sex-peptide is the molecular basis of the sperm effect in Drosophila melanogaster. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2003. 100(17): p. 9929-33) or to control, Sex-Peptide producing, males. Comparisons were made at 3 and 6 hours after mating, in dissected Head - Thorax body parts.