Transcriptional profiling of E. coli K-12 and E. coli O157 (Sakai) following heat shock at 45 degree celsius
ABSTRACT: Escherichia coli O157 presents a number of specific problems in terms of food safety and public health. It has been found that E. coli O157 is more resistant to a number of the stresses encountered during food production such as heat, pH and osmotic shock. This greater resistance is thought to contribute to the low infectious dose of E. coli O157 (<100 organisms). Moreover, E. coli O157 is associated with debilitating conditions such as haemorrhagic colitis and haemoytic uraemic syndrome, particularly in children and the elderly. We have been studying the stress responses of E. coli O157:H7 (Sakai) and comparing with a commensal strain of E. coli K-12, MG1655. We found that E. coli O157 (Sakai) is more resistant to heat stress than MG1655. A microarray study of these strains subjected to sub-lethal heat-stress at 45°C was carried out. In E. coli O157 (Sakai), 380 genes responded significantly to the treatment compared to 410 genes in MG1655. Overnight cultures of E. coli O157 (Sakai) and E. coli K-12 MG1655 were grown in Neidhardt's EZ Rich Defined Medium and diluted 1:100 in 50 ml fresh medium in 125 ml Ehrlenmeyer flasks. The cultures were shaken at 37°C until the optical density (OD600) reached 0.4. Each culture was divided into 2 equal parts in identical flasks. One flask flask was transferred to a shaking water bath and incubated at 45°C for 10 min; the other flask was incubated at 37°C for 10 min. After incubation, the cultures were transferred to 50 mL centrifuge tubes and treated with RNAprotect™ to stabilise the mRNA. The experiment was performed 3 times on different days. Six custom-made microarray slides were used in this study; each slide was hybridised with labelled cDNA made from untreated and heated E. coli O157 (Sakai) or MG1655.
Project description:Six isolates of PT21/28 and six of PT32 were analysed by CGH using UBECarray3 microarrays (containing probes for E. coli K-12 str. MG1655 and O157:H7 str. EDL933 and Sakai) to define genotypic differences between phage types. gDNA from E.coli O157 str. Sakai was hybridised to all arrays to provide a universal control channel on all arrays. gDNA from 12 PT 21/28 & 32 isolates were labelled with Cy5 and control gDNA from str. Sakai was labelled with Cy3. Test and control gDNA was hybridised to UBECarray3 microarrays. The LOWESS normalised relative signal to the Sakai control channel was used to compare between samples.
Project description:Escherichia coli O157 presents a number of specific problems in terms of food safety and public health. It has been found that E. coli O157 is more resistant to a number of the stresses encountered during food production such as heat, pH and osmotic shock. This greater resistance is thought to contribute to the low infectious dose of E. coli O157 (<100 organisms). Moreover, E. coli O157 is associated with debilitating conditions such as haemorrhagic colitis and haemoytic uraemic syndrome, particularly in children and the elderly. We have been studying the stress responses of E. coli O157:H7 (Sakai) and comparing with a commensal strain of E. coli K-12, MG1655. We found that E. coli O157 (Sakai) is more sensitive to oxidative stress than MG1655. A microarray study of these strains treated with sub-lethal concentrations (0.5mg/ml) of menadione revealed big differences in their responses. In E. coli O157 (Sakai), 540 genes responded significantly to the treatment compared to 121 genes in MG1655. One surprising finding from the microarray data was the observation that many iron-transport genes were up-regulated in E. coli O157 (Sakai) whereas relatively few were induced in MG1655 despite the fact that the bacteria were grown in a medium containing ample iron. We speculated that the induction of iron transport genes in an iron-rich medium might have contributed to the enhanced killing of E. coli O157 (Sakai) through triggering of a Fenton reaction. We speculated that the difference in sensitivity to oxidative stress might be due to differences in the intracellular iron content of E. coli O157 and MG1655. We found that E. coli O157 contains ~50% more iron than MG1655 and believe that during oxidative stress, this iron is released by damaged proteins. The greater levels of free iron in E. coli O157 will trigger a greater Fenton reaction that can damage the ferric uptake regulator (Fur), resulting in unregulated iron transport. In MG1655, the lower iron content results in a smaller Fenton reaction, enabling the cellular protection systems to limit damage and protect Fur. Overnight cultures of E. coli O157 (Sakai) and E. coli K-12 MG1655 were grown in Neidhardt's EZ Rich Defined Medium and diluted 1:100 in 50 ml fresh medium in 125 ml Ehrlenmeyer flasks. The cultures were shaken at 37C until the optical density (OD600) reached 0.4. Each culture was divided into 2 equal parts in identical flasks. One flask contained menadione bisulphite to a final concentration of 0.5 mg/ml; the other flask contained an equivalent volume of distilled water. The flasks were shaken for a further 10 mins and then treated with RNAprotect™ to stabilise the mRNA. The experiment was performed 3 times on different days. Six custom-made microarray slides were used in this study; each slide was hybridised with labelled cDNA made from mRNA taken from untreated and treated E. coli O157 (Sakai) or MG1655.
Project description:There is increasing evidence to support a role for sigma factor 54 (RpoN) in the regulation of stress resistance factors and protein secretion systems important to bacterial transmission and pathogenesis. In enterohemorrhagic E. coli O157:H7, acid resistance and type III secretion are essential determinants of gastric passage and colonization. This study thus described the transcriptome of an rpoN null strain of E. coli O157:H7 (EcJR-8) to determine the influence of RpoN on virulence and stress resistance gene regulation, and further explored its contribution to glutamate-dependent acid resistance (GDAR). Inactivation of rpoN resulted in the growth phase-dependent, differential expression of 104 genes. This included type III secretion structural and regulatory genes encoded on the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE), as well as GDAR genes gadA, gadBC and gadE. Upregulation of gad transcript levels in EcJR-8 during logarithmic growth correlated with increased GDAR and survival in a model stomach. Acid susceptibility was reconstituted in EcJR-8 complemented in trans with wild-type rpoN. Acid resistance in EcJR-8 was dependent on exogenous glutamate, gadE and rpoS, but was independent of hns. Results also suggest that GDAR may be controlled by RpoN at multiple regulatory levels. This study supports the hypothesis that RpoN is an important regulator of virulence and stress resistance factors in E. coli O157:H7, and is the first to examine the mechanism by which it represses GDAR. Hybridizations measured transcriptional differences between an rpoN null and wild-type (WT) strain of E. coli O157:H7 Sakai at logarithmic and transition phase. Image files (TIFF) of hybridized microarray slides were generated using an Axon 4000B scanner (Molecular Devices), and analyzed using GenePix Pro software (Molecular Devices, ver. 6.0). The resulting microarray intensity data was log2-transformed, and normalized using the LOWESS algorithm in MAANOVA ver. 0.98-8 (R ver. 2.2.1).
Project description:Escherichia coli O157:H7, a food-borne pathogen, causes hemorrhagic colitis and the hemolytic-uremic syndrome. A putative virulence factor of E. coli O157:H7 is a 60-MDa plasmid (pO157) found in 99% of all clinical isolates and many bovine-derived strains. The well characterized E. coli O157:H7 Sakai strain (Sakai) and its pO157-cured derivative (Sakai-Cu) were compared for phenotypic differences. Sakai-Cu had enhanced survival in synthetic gastric fluid, did not colonize cattle as well as wild-type Sakai, and had unchanged growth rates and tolerance to salt and heat. These results are consistent with our previous findings with another E. coli O157:H7 disease outbreak isolate ATCC 43894 and its pO157-cured (43894-Cu). However, despite the essentially sequence identical pO157 in these strains, Sakai-Cu had changes in antibiotic susceptibility and motility that did not occur in the 43894-Cu strain. This unexpected result was systematically analyzed using phenotypic microarrays testing 1,920 conditions with Sakai, 43894, and the plasmid-cured mutants. The influence of the pO157 differed between strains on a wide number of growth/survival conditions. Relative expression of genes related to acid resistance (gadA, gadX, and rpoS) and flagella production (fliC and flhD) were tested using quantitative real-time PCR and gadA and rpoS expression differed between Sakai-Cu and 43894-Cu. The strain-specific differences in phenotype that resulted from the loss of essentially DNA-sequence identical pO157 were likely due to the chromosomal genetic diversity between strains. The O157:H7 serotype diversity was further highlighted by phenotypic microarray comparisons of the two outbreak strains with a genotype 6 bovine E. coli O157:H7 isolate, rarely associated with human disease.
Project description:Integrating laterally acquired virulence genes into the backbone regulatory network is important for the pathogenesis of Escherichia coli O157:H7, which has captured many virulence genes through horizontal transfer during evolution. GadE is an essential transcriptional activator of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) system, the most efficient acid resistance mechanism in E. coli. The full contribution of GadE to the acid resistance and virulence of pathogenic E. coli O157:H7 remains largely unknown. We inactivated gadE in E. coli O157:H7 Sakai and compared global transcription profiles with that of wild type in exponential and stationary phases of growth using microarrays containing 6088 ORFs from three E. coli genomes. gadE inactivation significantly altered the expression of 60 genes independent of growth phase and 122 genes in a growth phase-dependent manner. Inactivation of gadE markedly down-regulated the expression of gadA, gadB, gadC and many acid fitness island genes in a growth phase-dependent manner. Nineteen genes encoded on the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE), including ler, showed a significant increase in expression upon gadE inactivation. Altogether, our data indicate that GadE is critical for acid resistance of E. coli O157:H7 and plays an important role in virulence by down-regulating expression of LEE. The results are based on O157:H7 Sakai wild type and gadE mutant exponential and stationary phase cultures grown in MOPS minimal medium. Differences in transcript levels were determined using a mixed model ANOVA in R/MAANOVA which tested for significant differences due to growth phase (exponential or stationary), strain (wild type or mutant) and the interaction of these two factors using the following linear model: array+dye+sample (biological replicate)+ phase+strain+phase*strain. We incorporated the dye-swaps among the biological replicates.
Project description:2D-LC/MS/MS analysis was used to examine time-dependent changes in proteome of E. coli O157:H7 strain Sakai upon abrupt downshifts from 35°C aw 0.993 to 14°C aw 0.967. Bacterial cells were harvested before abrupt downshifts in both temperature and aw (i.e. control), or at 0 (i.e. immediately after the shift), 60, 250, 1605, 4,070, 5,700, 9,900 or 18,565 min after the shifts.
Project description:An Escherichia coli oligonucleotide microarray based on three sequenced genomes was validated for comparative genomic microarray hybridization and used to study the diversity of E. coli O157 isolates from human infections and food and animal sources. Among 26 test strains, 24 (including both Shiga toxin [Stx]-positive and -negative strains) were found to be related to the two sequenced E. coli O157:H7 strains, EDL933 and Sakai. However, these strains showed much greater genetic diversity than those reported previously, and most of them could not be categorized as either lineage I or II. Some genes were found more often in isolates from human than from nonhuman sources; e.g., ECs1202 and ECs2976, associated with stx2AB and stx1AB, were in all isolates from human sources but in only 40% of those from nonhuman sources. Some (but not all) lineage I-specific or -dominant genes were also more frequently associated with isolates from human. The results suggested that it might be more effective to concentrate our efforts on finding markers that are directly related to infection rather than those specific to certain lineages. In addition, two Stx-negative O157 cattle isolates (one confirmed to be H7) were significantly different from other Stx-positive and -negative E. coli O157:H7 strains and were more similar to MG1655 in their gene content. This work demonstrates that not all E. coli O157:H7 strains belong to the same clonal group, and those that were similar to E. coli K-12 might be less virulent.
Project description:Fresh produce has been associated with multiple outbreaks of illness caused by Escherichia coli O157:H7. The mechanism of E. coli O157:H7 survival through postharvest processing of fresh produce needs to be understood to help develop more effective interventions. In our recent transcriptomic study of strain Sakai, an isolate from the 1996 sprout outbreak in Japan, and strain TW14359, an isolate from the 2006 spinach outbreak in the United States, we showed that ycfR was the most significantly upregulated gene in response to chlorine-based oxidative stress. YcfR is known to be a multiple stress resistance protein and a biofilm regulator in E. coli K-12 strains; however, its role in the pathogenic E. coli O157:H7 has not been clearly defined. In this study, ycfR was replaced with a chloramphenicol resistance cassette oriented in two different directions to construct polar and nonpolar ycfR::cat mutants of Sakai and TW14359. Chlorine resistance and survival on spinach leaf surfaces were assessed in the wild-type strains and the ycfR mutants. Both polar and nonpolar ycfR mutants of Sakai showed significantly less chlorine resistance than their parent strain. In contrast, deletion of ycfR in TW14359 did not change chlorine resistance, indicating that ycfR in these two outbreak-related E. coli O157:H7 strains may function differently. In addition, after a 24-h incubation on spinach leaves in a sublethal concentration of chlorine, the Sakai nonpolar ycfR mutant exhibited lower survival compared to the wild type. The results suggest a role for ycfR in survival of Sakai during chlorine exposure. We also found that the upstream ycfQ, which is annotated as a DNA-binding regulator, acted as a repressor of ycfR. These findings suggest that gene regulation may be a mechanism by which E. coli O157:H7 strain Sakai could survive in the postharvest processing environment.
Project description:The food-borne pathogen Escherichia coli O157:H7 is commonly exposed to organic acid in processed and preserved foods, allowing adaptation and the development of tolerance to pH levels otherwise lethal. Since little is known about the molecular basis of adaptation of E. coli to organic acids, we studied K-12 MG1655 and O157:H7 Sakai during exposure to acetic, lactic, and hydrochloric acid at pH 5.5. This is the first analysis of the pH-dependent transcriptomic response of stationary-phase E. coli. Thirty-four genes and three intergenic regions were upregulated by both strains during exposure to all acids. This universal acid response included genes involved in oxidative, envelope, and cold stress resistance and iron and manganese uptake, as well as 10 genes of unknown function. Acidulant- and strain-specific responses were also revealed. The acidulant-specific response reflects differences in the modes of microbial inactivation, even between weak organic acids. The two strains exhibited similar responses to lactic and hydrochloric acid, while the response to acetic acid was distinct. Acidulant-dependent differences between the strains involved induction of genes involved in the heat shock response, osmoregulation, inorganic ion and nucleotide transport and metabolism, translation, and energy production. E. coli O157:H7-specific acid-inducible genes were identified, suggesting that the enterohemorrhagic E. coli strain possesses additional molecular mechanisms contributing to acid resistance that are absent in K-12. While E. coli K-12 was most resistant to lactic and hydrochloric acid, O157:H7 may have a greater ability to survive in more complex acidic environments, such as those encountered in the host and during food processing.