RNAseq of tumor samples from CT26 syngeneic mouse treated with a PI3Ka/d inhibitor (AZD8835)
ABSTRACT: PI3K inhibitors with differential selectivity to distinct PI3K isoforms have been tested extensively in clinical trials, largely to target tumor epithelial cells. PI3K signaling also regulates the immune system and inhibition of PI3Kdelta modulate the tumor immune microenvironment of pre-clinical mouse tumor models by relieving T-regs-mediated immunosuppression. While PI3K inhibitors as a class and PI3Ka/d specifically are associated with immune-related side effects. However, the impact of mixed PI3K inhibitors in tumor immunology is under-explored. Here we examine the differential effects of AZD8835 a dual PI3Ka/d inhibitor specifically on the tumor immune microenvironment using syngeneic CT26 mice. CT-26 (5x10^6 cells/mouse) tumor cells were implanted subcutaneously (s.c.) in the left flank of female Balb/c and C57/Bl6 mice, respectively. AZD8835 was dosed at 50mg/kg twice daily in at 2days on/ 5 days off schedule for times indicated in figures or 25mg/kg BID daily. At end of study tumor tissues were then transferred into the gentleMACS C Tube containing RPMI. Tumor samples were processed using the mouse tumor dissociation kit from Miltenyi Biotec. Cells were liberated from tumors for downstream application using a mouse tumor dissociation kit and octodissociator (Miltenyi) according to manufacturer’s instructions. For RNA sequencing, total RNA was extracted using the RNeasy 96 Qiacube HT Kit (Qiagen), quality validated using nanodrop and Quantit RNA Assay Kit (Thermo Fisher), and submitted for TrueSeq Stranded mRNA library preparation, following the manufacturer’s instructions (Illumina). Resulting libraries were sequenced on the HiSeq4000 System.
Project description:Tumor ecosystems are composed of multiple cell types that communicate by ligand-receptor interactions. Targeting ligand-receptor interactions, for instance with immune check-point inhibitors, can provide significant benefit for patients. However, our knowledge of which interactions occur in a tumor and how these interactions affect outcome is still limited. We present an approach to characterize communication by ligand-receptor interactions across all cell types in a microenvironment using single-cell RNA sequencing. We apply this approach to identify and compare ligand-receptor interactions present in six syngeneic mouse tumor models. To identify interactions potentially associated with outcome, we regress interactions against phenotypic measurements of tumor growth rate. In addition, we quantify ligand-receptor interactions between T-cell subsets and their relation to immune infiltration using a publicly available human melanoma data-set. Overall, this approach provides a tool for studying cell-cell interactions, their variability across tumors, and their relationship to outcome. Overall design: We used three different types of immuno-competent inbred mouse strains: BALB/c, and A/J z. All animals enrolled in our study were 6-8 weeks old female mice that were housed in vivarium under specific pathogen free conditions in cages of up to 5 animals and receiving special rodent diet (Teklad). We implanted two mice for each syngeneic model resulting in a total of 12 samples. Each mouse tumor was harvested when the tumor size reached 100 – 200 mm3. Each sample was minced and digested with reagents from Mouse Tumor Dissociation Kit (Miltenyi) according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Cells were resuspended at 2x105 cells/mL in PBS-0.04% BSA. Each sample was processed individually and run in technical duplicates. For each sample (except CT26 and MC-38) one replicate was enriched for CD45 positive cells. Live CD45 positive cells were sorted with BD Aria after staining with FITC-CD45 (Biolegend) and 7-AAD. Single cell suspensions of all samples were resuspended in PBS-0.04% BSA at 5x105 cells/mL and barcoded with a 10x Chromium Controller (10x Genomics). In total, this procedure resulted in 24 samples.
Project description:Macrophages accumulate with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) progression, and can be acutely targeted via inhibition of colony stimulating factor-1 receptor (CSF-1R) to regress high-grade tumors in animal models. However, whether and how resistance emerges in response to sustained CSF-1R blockade is unknown. Here, we investigate whether long-term CSF-1R inhibition can stably regress GBM in preclinical trials. We show that while overall survival is significantly prolonged, tumors recur eventually in >50% of mice. Upon isolation and transplantation of recurrent tumor cells into naïve animals, gliomas re-establish sensitivity to CSF-1R inhibition, indicating that resistance is microenvironment-driven. PI3K pathway activity was elevated in recurrent GBM, driven by macrophage-derived IGF-1 and tumor cell IGF-1R. Consequently, combining IGF-1R or PI3K blockade with continuous CSF-1R inhibition in recurrent tumors significantly prolonged overall survival. By contrast, monotherapy with IGF-1R or PI3K inhibitors in rebound or treatment-naïve tumors was less effective, indicating the necessity of combination therapy to expose PI3K signaling-dependency in recurrent disease. Our findings thus reveal a potential therapeutic approach for treating resistance to CSF-1R inhibitors in the clinical setting. Overall design: 3 rebound neurosphere cell lines were assayed against 3 references to normal mouse liver
Project description:Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive form of glioma, and is notorious for its terminal prognosis and lack of responsiveness to current treatment approaches. The brain tumor microenvironment (TME) represents a largely untapped reservoir of therapeutic target options in GBM. Here we have focused on the interplay between glioma cells and tumor-associated macrophages/ microglia (TAMs). TAMs accumulate in the gliomas with disease progression, and depend on colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF-1R) signaling for survival. In a recent study from our laboratory, mice bearing high-grade gliomas were treated with a CSF-1R inhibitor, BLZ945 (Novartis), and tumors regressed significantly after just 7 days of treatment (PMID: 24056773). Here we investigate whether long-term treatment of high-grade gliomas with BLZ945 would result in stable management of disease in a mouse model of proneural GBM. We show that ~44% of mice survived to the trial end point (EP) with minimal disease by MRI and histology, whereas ~56% of mice showed tumor recurrence (Reb). Serial transplantation of rebound tumor cells into naïve animals re-established BLZ945 responsiveness, suggesting a role for the microenvironment in supporting recurrent disease. Indeed, RNA-seq analysis on FACS purified tumor cells and TAMs from EP and Reb tumors showed elevated PI3K signaling in Reb tumors, driven by a heterotypic paracrine interaction between TAM-derived IGF-1 and tumor cell IGF-1R. We performed combination trials to block IGF-1R or downstream PI3K signaling in rebound tumors with BLZ945 treatment, and were able to significantly prolong overall survival. Given that CSF-1R inhibitors are currently in clinical trials for multiple cancer types including for GBM, understanding the molecular mechanisms that underlie non-responsive/ resistant tumors is timely and critical. Overall design: Tumor cells and tumor -associated macrophages (TAMs) were sorted from Vehicle, Endpoint, and Rebound tumors following BLZ945 treatment.
Project description:Females were exposed during pregnancy to a normal or low protein diet (as described in Buffat et al, J. Pathol, 2007 and Zana-Taieb et al, J. Pathol, 2015). Brains cells were dissociated using the Neural Tissue Dissociation Kit of Miltenyi Biotec,in the presence of papain. Then Magnetic Bead coupled antibody (MACS) was used to sort the cells at P4. Microglial cells were sorted using the surface marker CD11b, and the oligodendrocyte cells using the O4 marker.
Project description:Copy number profiling of 92 human lung tumors on Affymetrix 100K SNP arrays was conducted in order to assess the interaction of common genomic alterations with response to targeted anti-cancer therapeutics. Class 1 phosphatidylinositol 3' kinase (PI3K) plays a major role in cell proliferation and survival in a wide variety of human cancers. Here we investigate biomarker strategies for PI3K pathway inhibitors in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Molecular profiling of NSCLC tumor samples showed that copy number gains in PIK3CA and total loss of PTEN protein were common in squamous cell carcinoma samples, whereas LKB1 loss and mutations in KRAS and EGFR were common in adenocarcinomas. A panel of NSCLC cell lines characterized for alterations in the PI3K pathway was screened with PI3K and dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitors to assess the preclinical predictive value of candidate biomarkers. Cell lines harboring pathway alterations (RTK activation, PI3K mutation or amplification, PTEN loss) were exquisitely sensitive to the PI3K inhibitor GDC-0941. A dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor had broader activity across the cell line panel and in tumor xenografts. The combination of GDC-0941 with paclitaxel, erlotinib, or a MEK inhibitor had greater effects on cell viability than PI3K inhibition alone. CONCLUSIONS: Candidate biomarkers for PI3K inhibitors have predictive value in preclinical models and show histology-specific alterations in primary tumors, suggesting that distinct biomarker strategies may be required in squamous compared with non-squamous NSCLC patient populations. Lung tumors were profiled on Affymetrix GeneChip Mapping 100K Set Arrays Tumor samples were profiled for copy number without any treatment of the tumor.
Project description:Tumors arise and grow despite anti-cancer immune responses. These responses can be stimulated by immunotherapies such as immune checkpoint inhibitors (e.g. anti-PD1 antibodies) and chimeric antigen receptors (CAR). Efficacy of these agents in solid tumors including colorectal cancers (CRC) is limited by immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment (TME) that prevents killing of malignant cells by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). Understanding the nature of TME-generated immunosuppression is of paramount importance. Here we report that TME elicited immunosuppression via eliminating activated CTL; this elimination required TME stress-induced downregulation of the IFNAR1 chain of type I interferon (IFN) receptor and attenuation of its signaling. Downregulation of IFNAR1 was observed in human colorectal cancers (CRC) and in mouse CRC models where it was required for efficient tumor development and progression. Stabilization of IFNAR1 on CTL improved their survival and increased anti- tumor activities of CAR T cells and PD1 inhibitors thereby providing a rationale for targeting IFNAR1 degradation for immunotherapies optimization. Two genotypes of mice were examined either 9 or 21 days post injection of MC38 colon cancer cells or MC38mRFP cells, respectively. 2-3 replicate mice were analyzed on separate arrays for each condition. 6 conditions in total were analyzed.
Project description:The aim of this study was to decipher gene expression of tumor-associated macrophage in the 4T1 mouse model of breast cancer. Overall design: For M0 basal macrophages, Ly6C+ monocytes were isolated from splenocytes of 4T1-bearing mice using Miltenyi magnetic beads, seeded in a 6-wells plate at 1 million cells per wells in RPMI 10% FCS, penicillin/streptomycin, 50ng/ml M-CSF and cultured for 72h. F4/80+ TAMs were isolated from enzyme-digested 4T1 tumors using Miltenyi magnetic beads, and lysed directly in Ambion's PureLink™ RNA Mini Kit lysis buffer.
Project description:Analysis of responses induced upon the blockade of CSF1R signaling at the gene expression level. Hypothesis of this study was that CSF1R signal blockade alters the local immune responses in a murine pancreatic tumor model. Results provide important information on changes in the immune responses in the tumor microenvironment. Total RNA obtained from whole mouse pancreatic tumor tissues after vehicle or CSF1Ri treatment for 8 days
Project description:Effective therapies for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remain challenging despite an increasingly comprehensive understanding of somatically altered oncogenic pathways. It is now clear that therapeutic agents with potential to impact the tumor immune microenvironment potentiate immune-orchestrated therapeutic benefit. Herein we evaluated the immunoregulatory properties of histone deacetylase (HDAC) and bromodomain inhibitors, two classes of drugs that modulate the epigenome, with a focus on key cell subsets that are engaged in an immune response. By evaluating human peripheral blood and NSCLC tumors, we show that the selective HDAC6 inhibitor ricolinostat promotes phenotypic changes that support enhanced T cell activation and improved function of antigen presenting cells. The bromodomain inhibitor JQ1 attenuated CD4+Foxp3+ T regulatory cell suppressive function and synergized with ricolinostat to facilitate immune-mediated tumor growth arrest, leading to prolonged survival of mice with lung adenocarcinomas. Collectively, our findings highlight the immunomodulatory effects of two epigenetic modifiers that, together, promote T cell-mediated anti-tumor immunity and demonstrate their therapeutic potential for treatment of NSCLC. 6 Kras-mutant/p53-deficient lung tumors T cells and macrophages were analyzed wth Nanostring mouse PanCancer immune module Overall design: Gene expression analyses of tumor-infiltrating T cells and macrophages in lung tumor-bearing mice treated with Vehicle (control), ricolinostat (HDAC inhibitor), or JQ1 (Bromodomain inhibitor)
Project description:Success of immune checkpoint inhibitors in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has invigorated their use in neo-adjuvant setting for early-stage disease. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of the early immune responses to therapy remain poorly understood. Through an integrated analysis of early-stage NSCLC patients and a Kras-mutant mouse model, we show a prevalent programmed cell death 1/ programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) axis exemplified by increased intratumoral PD-1+ T cells and PD-L1 expression. Notably, tumor progression was associated with spatiotemporal modulation of the immune microenvironment. Importantly, PD-1 inhibition controlled tumor growth, improved overall survival, and reprogrammed tumor-associated lymphoid and myeloid cells. Depletion of T lymphocyte subsets demonstrated synergistic effects of those populations on PD-1 inhibition of tumor growth. Transcriptome analyses revealed T cell subset-specific alterations corresponding to degree of response to the treatment. These results provide insights into temporal evolution of the phenotypic effects of PD-1/PD-L1 activation and inhibition, and motivate targeting this axis early in lung cancer progression. Overall design: CD4 and CD8 lung tumor infiltrating lymphocytes were sorted into RLT lysis buffer from IgG antibody or anti-PD1 antibody treated C57Bl/6 mice at day 14, 17 or 24 for mRNA-Sequencing.