RNA-seq of human primary hepatocytes treated with FGF19 and CDCA
ABSTRACT: Primary human hepatocytes were treated with recombinant FGF19 (n=3), CDCA (n=3), endogenously produced FGF19 (n=3), or vehicle controls (n=3+3). Total RNA was harvested and sequenced with a strand-specific paired end RNA-seq protocol.
Project description:Mouse FGF15 and human FGF19 are orthologous proteins that regulate bile acid metabolism. However, other hepatic functions of FGF15/19 are not well characterized. We used microarrays to analyze global hepatic gene expression in mice administered FGF15 or FGF19. Total liver RNA was isolated from wild-type mice administered vehicle, purified FGF15 or recombinant FGF19 for 6 hr via a jugular vein injection as described (Inagaki et al., 2005). Mice did not have access to food throughout the 6 hr treatment, and livers were harvested and immediately frozen in liquid nitrogen. Microarray analyses were performed using the Mouse Genome 430A 2.0 array.
Project description:Fibroblast growth factors (FGF) constitute a large family of proteins with pleiotropic effects on development, organogenesis, and metabolism. The FGF19 subclass includes growth factors circulating with the blood referred to as endocrine FGF. Representatives of the FGF19 subclass, including FGF19, FGF21, and FGF23, act via FGFR receptors. The proteins of FGF19 subfamily influence the enterohepatic circulation of bile, participate in glucose and lipid metabolism regulation, and maintenance of phosphorus and vitamin D3 homeostasis. FGF19 and FGF21 are activated under different physiological and pathological conditions.
Project description:Background: Fibroblast growth factor-19 (FGF19) is an intestinal hormone that mediates postprandial metabolic responses in the liver. The unusual orphan nuclear receptor, Small Heterodimer Partner (SHP), acts as a co-repressor for many transcriptional factors and has been implicated in diverse biological pathways including FGF19-mediated repression of bile acid synthesis. To explore global functions of SHP in mediating FGF19 action, we identify genome-wide SHP binding sites in hepatic chromatin in mice treated with vehicle or FGF19 by ChIP-seq analysis. Results: The overall pattern of SHP binding sites between these two groups is similar, but SHP binding is enhanced at the sites by addition of FGF19. SHP binding is detected preferentially in promoter regions that are enriched in motifs for unexpected non-nuclear receptors. We observe global co-localization of SHP sites with published sites for SREBP-2, a master transcriptional activator of cholesterol biosynthesis. FGF19 increases functional interaction between endogenous SHP and SREBP-2 and inhibits SREBP-2 target genes, and these effects were blunted in SHP-knockout mice. Furthermore, FGF19-induced phosphorylation of SHP at Thr-55 is shown to be important for its functional interaction with SREBP-2 and reduction of liver/serum cholesterol levels. Conclusion: This study reveals SHP as a global transcriptional partner of SREBP-2 in regulation of sterol biosynthetic gene networks and provides a potential mechanism for cholesterol-lowering action of FGF19. Genome-wide SHP binding profiles in hepatic chromatin in mice under treatment of FGF19 or vehicle were generated using high throughput sequencing followed by chromatin immunoprecipitation.
Project description:Hepatoblastoma is the most common liver cancer in children, accounting for over 65% of all childhood liver malignancies. Hepatoblastoma is distinct from adult liver cancer in that it is not associated with hepatitis virus infection, cirrhosis, or other underlying liver pathology. The paucity of appropriate cell and animal models has been hampering the mechanistic understanding of hepatoblastoma pathogenesis. Consequently, there is no molecularly targeted therapy for hepatoblastoma. To gain insight into cytokine signaling in hepatoblastoma, we employed mass spectrometry to analyze the proteins secreted from Hep293TT hepatoblastoma cell line we established and identified the specific secretion of fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19), a growth factor for liver cells. We determined that silencing FGF19 by shRNAs or neutralizing secreted FGF19 by anti-FGF19 antibody inhibits the proliferation of hepatoblastoma cells. Furthermore, blocking FGF19 signaling by an FGF receptor kinase inhibitor suppressed hepatoblastoma growth. RNA expression analysis in hepatoblastoma tumors revealed that the high expression of FGF19 signaling pathway components as well as the low expression of FGF19 signaling repression targets correlates with the aggressiveness of the tumors. These results suggest the role of FGF19 as autocrine growth factor for hepatoblastoma.
Project description:The ability of the Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) 19 subfamily to signal in an endocrine fashion sets this subfamily apart from the remaining five FGF subfamilies known for their paracrine functions during embryonic development. Compared to the members of paracrine FGF subfamiles, the three members of the FGF19 subfamily, namely FGF19, FGF21 and FGF23, have poor affinity for heparan sulfate (HS) and therefore can diffuse freely in the HS-rich extracellular matrix to enter into the bloodstream. In further contrast to paracrine FGFs, FGF19 subfamily members have unusually poor affinity for their cognate FGF receptors (FGFRs) and therefore cannot bind and activate them in a solely HS-dependent fashion. As a result, the FGF19 subfamily requires ?/?klotho coreceptor proteins in order to bind, dimerize and activate their cognate FGFRs. This klotho-dependency also determines the tissue specificity of endocrine FGFs. Recent structural and biochemical studies have begun to shed light onto the molecular basis for the klotho-dependent endocrine mode of action of the FGF19 subfamily. Crystal structures of FGF19 and FGF23 show that the topology of the HS binding site (HBS) of FGF19 subfamily members deviates drastically from the common topology adopted by the paracrine FGFs. The distinct topologies of the HBS of FGF19 and FGF23 prevent HS from direct hydrogen bonding with the backbone atoms of the HBS of these ligands and accordingly decrease the HS binding affinity of this subfamily. Recent biochemical data reveal that the ?klotho ectodomain binds avidly to the ectodomain of FGFR1c, the main cognate FGFR of FGF23, creating a de novo high affinity binding site for the C-terminal tail of FGF23. The isolated FGF23 C-terminus can be used to effectively inhibit the formation of the FGF23-FGFR1c-?klotho complex and alleviate hypophosphatemia in renal phosphate disorders due to elevated levels of FGF23.
Project description:Fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) is a gut-derived peptide hormone that is produced following activation of Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR). FGF19 is secreted and signals to the liver, where it contributes to the homeostasis of bile acid (BA), lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. FGF19 is a promising therapeutic target for the metabolic syndrome and cholestatic diseases, but enthusiasm for its use has been tempered by FGF19-mediated induction of proliferation and hepatocellular carcinoma. To inform future rational design of FGF19-variants, we have conducted temporal quantitative proteomic and gene expression analyses to identify FGF19-targets related to metabolism and proliferation. Mice were fasted for 16 hours, and injected with human FGF19 (1 mg/kg body weight) or vehicle. Liver protein extracts (containing "light" lysine) were mixed 1:1 with a spike-in protein extract from 13C6-lysine metabolically labelled mouse liver (containing "heavy" lysine) and analysed by LC-MS/MS. Our analyses provide a resource of FGF19 target proteins in the liver. 189 proteins were upregulated (? 1.5 folds) and 73 proteins were downregulated (? -1.5 folds) by FGF19. FGF19 treatment decreased the expression of proteins involved in fatty acid (FA) synthesis, i.e., Fabp5, Scd1, and Acsl3 and increased the expression of Acox1, involved in FA oxidation. As expected, FGF19 increased the expression of proteins known to drive proliferation (i.e., Tgfbi, Vcam1, Anxa2 and Hdlbp). Importantly, many of the FGF19 targets (i.e., Pdk4, Apoa4, Fas and Stat3) have a dual function in both metabolism and cell proliferation. Therefore, our findings challenge the development of FGF19-variants that fully uncouple metabolic benefit from mitogenic potential.
Project description:FGF19 and FGF21 are distinctive members of the FGF family that function as endocrine hormones. Their potent effects on normalizing glucose, lipid, and energy homeostasis in disease models have made them an interesting focus of research for combating the growing epidemics of diabetes and obesity. Despite overlapping functions, FGF19 and FGF21 have many discrete effects, the most important being that FGF19 has both metabolic and proliferative effects, whereas FGF21 has only metabolic effects. Here we identify the structural determinants dictating differential receptor interactions that explain and distinguish these two physiological functions. We also have generated FGF19 variants that have lost the ability to induce hepatocyte proliferation but that still are effective in lowering plasma glucose levels and improving insulin sensitivity in mice. Our results add valuable insight into the structure-function relationship of FGF19/FGF21 and identify the structural basis underpinning the distinct proliferative feature of FGF19 compared with FGF21. In addition, these studies provide a road map for engineering FGF19 as a potential therapeutic candidate for treating diabetes and obesity.
Project description:Prostate cancer is the most common visceral malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer deaths in US men. There is broad evidence that fibroblast growth factor (FGF) receptors are important in prostate cancer initiation and progression, but the contribution of particular FGFs in this disease is not fully understood. The FGF family members FGF19, FGF21, and FGF23 comprise a distinct subfamily that circulate in serum and act in an endocrine manner. These endocrine FGFs require ?-Klotho (KL) and/or ?-Klotho (KLB), two related single-pass transmembrane proteins restricted in their tissue distribution, to act as coreceptors along with classic FGF receptors (FGFR) to mediate potent biologic activity. Here we show that FGF19 is expressed in primary and metastatic prostate cancer tissues, where it functions as an autocrine growth factor. Exogenous FGF19 promoted the growth, invasion, adhesion, and colony formation of prostate cancer cells at low ligand concentrations. FGF19 silencing in prostate cancer cells expressing autocrine FGF19 decreased invasion and proliferation in vitro and tumor growth in vivo. Consistent with these observations, KL and/or KLB were expressed in prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, raising the possibility that additional endocrine FGFs may also exert biologic effects in prostate cancer. Our findings support the concept that therapies targeting FGFR signaling may have efficacy in prostate cancer and highlight FGF19 as a relevant endocrine FGF in this setting.