Project description:Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the most aggressive subtype of breast cancer without effective targeted drugs. While breast cancer patients often use acupuncture for the relief of cancer-induced pain or the side effects of chemo- or radiation therapy, little information is known regarding the direct effects of electroacupuncture on TNBC tumor and its potential mechanisms. Here, we created a mice model of TNBC and electroacupuncture with encircled needling around the tumors was given to the animals daily for 3 weeks at 15-20 Hz (3 min, each time). For sham electroacupuncture control, the skin was punctured to a depth of 5 mm and then the needle was quickly withdrawn without electrical stimulation or manual needle manipulation. We found that electroacupuncture significantly inhibited TNBC tumor growth and the inhibitory rate increased gradually overtime. Mechanistic analysis showed that electroacupuncture inhibited tumor angiogenesis by reducing the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), its receptor VEGF-R and neuropilin 1 (NRP-1). Electroacupuncture also led to a significant decrease of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) expression and an increase of tissue inhibitor of MMP (TIMP-2) expression. Additionally, the expression of semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) and nerve growth factor receptor (NGFR) p75 in TNBC tissue was significantly upregulated in response to electroacupuncture. Furthermore, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha level in the serum was dramatically reduced after electroacupuncture. These results showed that electroacupuncture could directly inhibit TNBC tumor growth through the inhibition of proteins related to tumor angiogenesis and extracellular matrix, the suppression of TNBC-induced inflammation and the upregulation of nerve growth factor receptors.
Project description:Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease. Although some of the current treatments offer some symptomatic relief, this disease cannot be cured at present. Electroacupuncture may be effective for Alzheimer's disease for cognitive function, but the evidence for its effectiveness is still limited. The aim of this study is to evaluate the add-on effect of electroacupuncture to donepezil for improving the cognitive function of Alzheimer's disease.A total of 334 participants with Alzheimer's disease will be randomly assigned to either an electroacupuncture combined with donepezil group or a donepezil group with a ratio of 1:1. Participants in the electroacupuncture combined with donepezil group will receive electroacupuncture in addition to donepezil for 12 weeks and will keep taking donepezil for the following 24 weeks. Participants in the control group will take donepezil only. The primary outcome is the change from baseline in the total score of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognition at week 12. A follow-up will be conducted 24 weeks after the treatment.We expect to verify the hypothesis that acupuncture in addition to donepezil is better than donepezil in improving the cognitive function of patients with Alzheimer's disease. This trial has a limitation that participant blinding is impossible.Clinical Trials.gov: ID: NCT02305836 . Registered on 13 November 2014.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Postoperative pain is common after nasal endoscopic surgery. It interferes with the quality of sleep and delays postoperative recovery. Acupuncture is an effective tool for pain management. However, electroacupuncture specifically for the relief of postoperative pain after nasal endoscopic surgery has not yet been studied in a randomized controlled trial. METHODS/DESIGN:This randomized sham-controlled patient- and assessor-blind pilot trial has been designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of electroacupuncture in managing postoperative pain following nasal endoscopic surgery to treat sinusitis due to nasal polyps. Altogether, 30 participants will be randomly allocated to an electroacupuncture or non-invasive sham control in a 1:1 ratio. Treatment will occur within 2?h before the operation, immediately after the operation upon arrival in the recovery ward, and once daily for 3?days. The primary outcome is the pain numerical rating scale, which will be analyzed using the area under the curve. The secondary outcome measures include heart rate and blood pressure after the operation, sleep quality during the hospital stay (actigraph), quality of recovery, and the 36-item short form health survey. This trial will use an intention-to-treat analysis. DISCUSSION:This pilot randomized controlled trial will explore the feasibility of the further clinical application of electroacupuncture for the management of postoperative pain. It will inform the design of a further full-scale trial. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, ChiCTR1900024183. Registered on 29 June 2019.
Project description:Objective:To explore the feasibility of evaluating the effectiveness and safety of electroacupuncture versus sham electroacupuncture for patients with knee osteoarthritis (KOA). Method:A pilot randomized controlled trial was conducted at a teaching hospital in Beijing. A total of 30 patients with KOA (Kellgren grade II or III) were randomly allocated to an eight-week treatment of either electroacupuncture or sham electroacupuncture. Patients and outcome assessors were blinded to group allocation. The primary outcome was the proportion of responders achieving at least 1.14 seconds decrease in the Timed Up and Go Test (TUG) at week eight compared with baseline. The secondary outcomes included the knee range of motion, the knee extensor and flexor muscle strength, Lequesne index, 9-step stair-climb test (9-SCT), and TUG. Results:Of 30 patients allocated to two groups, 27 (90%) completed the study. The proportion of responders was 53.3% (8 of 15) for electroacupuncture group and 26.7% (4 of 15) for sham electroacupuncture group by the intention-to-treat analysis (P = 0.264). There was no statistically significant difference in TUG between the two groups at eight weeks (P = 0.856). The compliance rate measured according to patients who conformed to the protocol and had received treatments ?20 times was 93.3% (28 of 30). The dropout rate was 20% (3 of 15). Adverse effects were not reported in the study. Conclusion:Our research demonstrated that further evaluation of the effectiveness of electroacupuncture versus sham electroacupuncture was feasible and safe for patients with KOA. Whether or not the electroacupuncture can improve the physical functions of knee joint, expand the knee range of motion, and increase the extensor and flexor muscle strength more significantly than sham electroacupuncture, future studies can be designed with larger sample size, randomization design and less biases. This trial is registered with NCT03366363.
Project description:Some feelings elicited by acupuncture-type interventions are "nonspecific", interpretable as resulting from the placebo effect, our own self-healing capacities-or, indeed, the flow of qi. Expectation is thought to contribute to these nonspecific effects. Here we describe the use of two innovative 20-item questionnaires (EXPre20 and EXPost20) in a teaching situation.Respondents were acupuncture students or practitioners on electroacupuncture (EA) training courses (N = 68). EXPre20 and EXPost20 questionnaires were completed before and after receiving individualised treatment administered by colleagues. Respondents were also asked about their prior experience of EA or transcutaneous electroacupuncture stimulation (TEAS).Respondents expected significantly more items to change than not to change, but significantly fewer were experienced as changing. Increases in given questionnaire items were both expected and experienced significantly more often than decreases. "Tingling", "Relaxation", and "Relief" or "Warmth" were most often expected to increase or were experienced as such, and "Pain" and "Tension" to decrease or experienced as decreasing. Expectations of change or no change were confirmed more often than not, particularly for "Tingling" and "Tension". This was not the result of the personal respondent style. Cluster analysis suggested the existence of two primary feeling clusters, "Relaxation" and "Alertness".Feelings experienced during or immediately after acupuncture-type interventions may depend both on prior experience and expectation.
Project description:RATIONALE:Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is an autosomal-dominant disorder associated with a short life expectancy and various symptoms, including grip myotonia. Even though grip myotonia decreases quality of life, activities of daily living (ADLs), and work performance, very few interventions provide symptomatic relief. PATIENT CONCERNS:In this case report, we present a patient with DM1 and gradually worsening grip myotonia. A 35-year-old woman developed grip myotonia at age 27. She had no underlying diseases or family history of relevant conditions, including DM1. She was unresponsive to medication for several years. DIAGNOSIS:Her symptoms gradually worsened, and she was finally diagnosed with DM1 via genetic, neurologic, and laboratory testing in a tertiary hospital at age 32. She tried several medication therapies; however, she stopped medication at age 34 due a perceived poor response and several adverse events. INTERVENTION:At the age of 35, she underwent 29 sessions (10?minutes per session) of electroacupuncture therapy on TE9 acupuncture point with 120?Hz electrical stimulation over 3 months. OUTCOMES:After 3 months, relaxation time after maximal voluntary isometric contraction decreased from 59 to 2?seconds with treatment. Her Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire score improved (total score, 66.6-75.9; ADL sub-score, 59.7-73.6; function sub-score, 70-90; satisfaction sub-score, 75-91.7). Her Measure Yourself Medical Outcome Profile 2 score also improved from 4.33 to 2. There were no serious adverse events. LESSONS:Electroacupuncture is a potential treatment modality and produced an immediate antimyotonic effect, and cumulative long-term treatment effect, in a patient with DM1 and grip myotonia. Other notable treatment outcomes included improving relaxation time, hand function, ADLs, and overall satisfaction. Electroacupuncture is a potential treatment modality for patients with DM1 and grip myotonia. Further prospective clinical studies are warranted to confirm this hypothesis.
Project description:Neuronal stimulation improves physiological responses to infection and trauma, but the clinical potential of this strategy is unknown. We hypothesized that transdermal neural stimulation through low-frequency electroacupuncture might control the immune responses to surgical trauma and expedite the postoperative recovery. However, the efficiency of electroacupuncture is questioned due to the placebo effect. Here, electroacupuncture was performed on anesthetized patients to avoid any placebo. This is a prospective double-blinded pilot trial to determine whether intraoperative electroacupuncture on anesthetized patients improves postoperative recovery. Patients with electroacupuncture required 60% less postoperative analgesic, even they had pain scores similar to those in the control patients. Electroacupuncture prevented postoperative hyperglycemia and attenuated serum adrenocorticotropic hormone in the older and heavier group of patients. From an immunological perspective, electroacupuncture did not affect the protective immune responses to surgical trauma, including the induction of interleukin-6 and interleukin-10. The most significant immunological effect of electroacupuncture was enhancing transforming growth factor-?1 production during surgery in the older and lighter group of patients. These results suggest that intraoperative electroacupuncture on anesthetized patients can reduce postoperative use of analgesics and improve immune and stress responses to surgery.
Project description:Importance:Electroacupuncture involving the lumbosacral region may be effective for women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI), but evidence is limited. Objective:To assess the effect of electroacupuncture vs sham electroacupuncture for women with SUI. Design, Setting, and Participants:Multicenter, randomized clinical trial conducted at 12 hospitals in China and enrolling 504 women with SUI between October 2013 and May 2015, with data collection completed in December 2015. Interventions:Participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive 18 sessions (over 6 weeks) of electroacupuncture involving the lumbosacral region (n = 252) or sham electroacupuncture (n = 252) with no skin penetration on sham acupoints. Main Outcomes and Measures:The primary outcome was change from baseline to week 6 in the amount of urine leakage, measured by the 1-hour pad test. Secondary outcomes included mean 72-hour urinary incontinence episodes measured by a 72-hour bladder diary (72-hour incontinence episodes). Results:Among the 504 randomized participants (mean [SD] age, 55.3 [8.4] years), 482 completed the study. Mean urine leakage at baseline was 18.4 g for the electroacupuncture group and 19.1 g for the sham electroacupuncture group. Mean 72-hour incontinence episodes were 7.9 for the electroacupuncture group and 7.7 for the sham electroacupuncture group. At week 6, the electroacupuncture group had greater decrease in mean urine leakage (-9.9 g) than the sham electroacupuncture group (-2.6 g) with a mean difference of 7.4 g (95% CI, 4.8 to 10.0; P < .001). During some time periods, the change in the mean 72-hour incontinence episodes from baseline was greater with electroacupuncture than sham electroacupuncture with between-group differences of 1.0 episode in weeks 1 to 6 (95% CI, 0.2-1.7; P = .01), 2.0 episodes in weeks 15 to 18 (95% CI, 1.3-2.7; P < .001), and 2.1 episodes in weeks 27 to 30 (95% CI, 1.3-2.8; P < .001). The incidence of treatment-related adverse events was 1.6% in the electroacupuncture group and 2.0% in the sham electroacupuncture group, and all events were classified as mild. Conclusions and Relevance:Among women with stress urinary incontinence, treatment with electroacupuncture involving the lumbosacral region, compared with sham electroacupuncture, resulted in less urine leakage after 6 weeks. Further research is needed to understand long-term efficacy and the mechanism of action of this intervention. Trial Registration:clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01784172.
Project description:STUDY OBJECTIVES:To evaluate the short-term efficacy and safety of electroacupuncture for the treatment of primary insomnia. DESIGN:Randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group. SETTING:A university-based sleep clinic. PARTICIPANTS:Community sample of 60 Chinese adult volunteers who report having insomnia 3 or more nights per week, whose symptoms meet the DSM-IV criteria for primary insomnia for at least 3 months, and who have an Insomnia Severity Index total score of at least 15. Participants were screened with polysomnography and the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV prior to randomization. INTERVENTION:Electroacupuncture at Yintang (EX-HN3), Baihui (GV20), bilateral ear Shenmen, Sishencong (EX-HN1), and Anmian (EX) 3 times per week for 3 weeks or placebo acupuncture using Streitberger needles at the same points. MEASUREMENTS AND RESULTS:Self-reported questionnaires, 1-week sleep diaries, and 3-day actigraphy were collected at baseline and 1 week after treatment. The Insomnia Severity Index was used as the primary outcome measure. Both groups showed significant improvement compared with the pretreatment baseline. One-way analysis of covariance adjusted for baseline scores showed that there were significantly greater improvements in sleep efficiency by sleep diary and actigraphy in the electroacupuncture group. However, no significant between-group differences were observed in the Insomnia Severity Index and other outcome measures. The proportions of subjects having less than 30 minutes of wake after sleep onset and a sleep efficiency of at least 85% at the posttreatment visit were significantly higher in the electroacupuncture group. All adverse events were mild in severity. CONCLUSION:We found a slight advantage of electroacupuncture over placebo acupuncture in the short-term treatment of primary insomnia. Because of some limitations of the current study, further studies are necessary to verify the effectiveness of acupuncture for insomnia.
Project description:Electroacupuncture and moxibustion are traditional Chinese medicine practices that exert therapeutic effects through stimulation of specific meridian acupoints. However, the biological basis of the therapies has been difficult to establish; thus the current practices still rely on ancient TCM references. Here, we used a rat model to study perturbations in cortex, liver, and stomach metabolome and plasma hormones following electroacupuncture or moxibustion treatment on either stomach meridian or gallbladder meridian acupoints. All treatment groups, regardless of meridian and mode of treatment, showed perturbation in cortex metabolome and increased phenylalanine, tyrosine, and branched-chain amino acids in liver. In addition, electroacupuncture was found to increase ATP in cortex, creatine, and dimethylglycine in stomach and GABA in liver. On the other hand, moxibustion increased plasma enkephalin concentration, as well as betaine and fumarate concentrations in stomach. Furthermore, we had observed meridian-specific changes including increased N-acetyl-aspartate in liver and 3-hydroxybutyrate in stomach for gallbladder meridian stimulation and increased noradrenaline concentration in blood plasma following stimulation on stomach meridian. In summary, the current findings may provide insight into the metabolic basis of electroacupuncture and moxibustion, which may contribute towards new application of acupoint stimulation.