MSI2 is required for maintaining activated myelodysplastic syndrome stem cells
ABSTRACT: Analysis of musashi2 contribution towards maintaing myelodysplastic phenotype in stem cells. We find that musashi2 plays an integral role in maintaining the myelodysplastic phenotype Control, NUP98-HOXD13; NHD13, NHD13/MSI2 bone marrow was transplated allowed to engraft into lethally irradiated congenic CD45.1 animals. Mice were then fed doxycycline to induce MSI2 overexpression. Mice were induced for 3 months and then CD45.2 Lineage lo Sca1+ and Kit+ cells were sorted and then assessed for gene expression.
Project description:Analysis of musashi2 contribution towards maintaing myelodysplastic phenotype in stem cells. We find that musashi2 plays an integral role in maintaining the myelodysplastic phenotype Control, NUP98-HOXD13; NHD13, NHD13/MSI2 bone marrow was transplated allowed to engraft into lethally irradiated congenic CD45.1 animals. Mice were then fed doxycycline to induce MSI2 overexpression. Mice were induced for 3 months and then CD45.2 Lineage lo Sca1+ and Kit+ cells were sorted and then assessed for gene expression.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Musashi2(Msi2)-Numb pathway de-regulation is a molecular mechanism underlying the transition of chronic phase Ph?+?CML to deadly blast crisis, particularly in cases with a NUP98/HOXA9 fusion from a t(7;11)(p15;p15). This study provides new insights on the mechanisms cooperating in driving MSI2 over-expression and progression of Ph-positive CML. RESULTS: Herein we describe a t(7;11)(p15;p15) originating a NUP98 fusion with HOXA13, at 7p15, in a 39 year-old man in blast crisis of Ph-positive CML. Both MSI2 and HOXA9 were evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR in our patient and in a series of haematological malignancies. Up-regulation of both genes emerged only in the presence of NUP98/HOXA13 gene fusion. However, over-expression of MSI2, but not HOXA9, was found in 2 cases of Ph?+?blast crisis with additional chromosome aberrations other than t(7;11). To determine the mechanisms underlying MSI2 over-expression in our patient we performed Chromatin Immunoprecipitation and found that NUP98/HOXA13 fusion protein deregulates MSI2 gene by binding its promoter. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first molecular characterization of NUP98/HOXA13 fusion in blast crisis of Ph?+?CML. Our findings suggest cooperative mechanisms of MSI2 over-expression driven by HOXA proteins and strongly supports MSI2 as a prognostic marker and a candidate in target treatment of CML.
Project description:The t(2;11)(q31;p15) chromosomal translocation results in a fusion between the NUP98 and HOXD13 genes and has been observed in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or acute myelogenous leukemia. We previously showed that expression of the NUP98-HOXD13 (NHD13) fusion gene in transgenic mice results in an invariably fatal MDS; approximately one third of mice die due to complications of severe pancytopenia, and about two thirds progress to a fatal acute leukemia. In the present study, we used retroviral insertional mutagenesis to identify genes that might collaborate with NHD13 as the MDS transformed to an acute leukemia. Newborn NHD13 transgenic mice and littermate controls were infected with the MOL4070LTR retrovirus. The onset of leukemia was accelerated, suggesting a synergistic effect between the NHD13 transgene and the genes neighboring retroviral insertion events. We identified numerous common insertion sites located near protein-coding genes and confirmed dysregulation of a subset of these by expression analyses. Among these genes were Meis1, a known collaborator of HOX and NUP98-HOX fusion genes, and Mn1, a transcriptional coactivator involved in human leukemia through fusion with the TEL gene. Other putative collaborators included Gata2, Erg, and Epor. Of note, we identified a common insertion site that was >100 kb from the nearest coding gene, but within 20 kb of the miR29a/miR29b1 microRNA locus. Both of these miRNA were up-regulated, demonstrating that retroviral insertional mutagenesis can target miRNA loci as well as protein-coding loci. Our data provide new insights into NHD13-mediated leukemogenesis as well as retroviral insertional mutagenesis mechanisms.
Project description:The nucleoporin gene NUP98 is fused to several genes including HOXD13 in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), acute myeloid leukemia, and chronic myeloid leukemia, blast crisis. Genetically engineered mice that express a NUP98-HOXD13 (NHD13) transgene (Tg) display the phenotypic features of MDS, including cytopenias, bone marrow dysplasia, and transformation to acute leukemia. Here we show that short-term treatment with the p53 inhibitor Pifithrin-? partially and transiently rescued the myeloid and lymphoid abnormalities found in NHD13(+) Tg mice, with no improvement in the anemia, while the genetic deletion of 2 alleles of p53 rescued both the myeloid progenitor cell and long-term hematopoietic stem cell compartments. Nonetheless, loss of one or both alleles of p53 did not rescue the MDS phenotype, but instead exacerbated the MDS phenotype and accelerated the development of acute myeloid leukemia. Our studies suggest that while targeting p53 may transiently improve hematopoiesis in MDS, over the long-term, it has detrimental effects, raising caution about abrogating its function to treat the cytopenias that accompany this disease.
Project description:Analysis of Lin-c-Kit+Sca-1- haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) expressing the Nup98-HoxD13 (NHD13) fusion gene. NHD13 induces myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) in mice. Results provide insight into the molecular basis of the myelodysplastic phenotype WT mouse HSCs were compared to an NHD13 mutant sequenced in triplicate on a HiSeq 2000
Project description:Analysis of Lin-c-Kit+Sca-1- haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) expressing the Nup98-HoxD13 (NHD13) fusion gene. NHD13 induces myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) in mice. Results provide insight into the molecular basis of the myelodysplastic phenotype Overall design: WT mouse HSCs were compared to an NHD13 mutant sequenced in triplicate on a HiSeq 2000
Project description:Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are clonal malignant hematopoietic disorders in the elderly characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis. This is accompanied by an altered bone microenvironment, which contributes to MDS progression and higher bone fragility. The underlying mechanisms remain largely unexplored. Here, we show that myelodysplastic NUP98?HOXD13 (NHD13) transgenic mice display an abnormally high number of osteoblasts, yet a higher fraction of nonmineralized bone, indicating delayed bone mineralization. This was accompanied by high fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23) serum levels, a phosphaturic hormone that inhibits bone mineralization and erythropoiesis. While Fgf23 mRNA expression was low in bone, brain, and kidney of NHD13 mice, its expression was increased in erythroid precursors. Coculturing these precursors with WT osteoblasts induced osteoblast marker gene expression, which was inhibited by blocking FGF-23. Finally, antibody-based neutralization of FGF-23 in myelodysplastic NHD13 mice improved bone mineralization and bone microarchitecture, and it ameliorated anemia. Importantly, higher serum levels of FGF?23 and an elevated amount of nonmineralized bone in patients with MDS validated the findings. C?terminal FGF?23 correlated negatively with hemoglobin levels and positively with the amount of nonmineralized bone. Thus, our study identifies FGF-23 as a link between altered bone structure and ineffective erythropoiesis in MDS with the prospects of a targeted therapeutic intervention.
Project description:The Nup98-HoxD13 (NHD13) fusion gene was identified in a patient with therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). When transgenically expressed in hematopoietic cells, mice faithfully recapitulate human disease with serial progression from peripheral blood (PB) cytopenias and increased bone marrow (BM) blasts to acute leukemia. It is well accepted that genomic instability in dysplastic hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPC) drives the evolution of MDS to acute leukemia. Findings here demonstrate that reticulocytes, myeloid and lymphoid PB cells of NHD13 mice, display an increase in the age-associated loss of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked surface proteins versus wild type controls. These data correlate with a progressive increase in the DNA damage response as measured by γ-H2AX activity, accumulating BM blasts as the disease progresses and finally development of acute leukemia. These findings clearly demonstrate a state of progressive genomic instability that increases the likelihood of a "second hit" or complimentary mutation later in the disease to trigger development of acute leukemia and underscores the mechanistic nature of how the NUP98-HoxD13 transgene induces progression of MDS to acute leukemia. Additionally, these data support the use of the PIG-A assay as an efficient, real-time surrogate marker of the genomic instability that occurs in the MDS HSPCs. Key Point The PIG-A assay is a sensitive, nonlethal method for the serial assessment of genomic instability in mouse models of MDS.
Project description:The myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis, dysplasia, and transformation to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Although it has been suggested that additional mutations lead to progression of MDS to AML, the causative agent(s) for such mutations remains unclear. Oxidative stress is a potential cause, therefore, we evaluated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in NUP98-HOXD13 (NHD13) transgenic mice, a murine model for MDS. Increased levels of ROS were detected in bone marrow nucleated cells (BMNC) that express CD71, a marker for cell proliferation, as well as immature, lineage negative bone marrow nucleated cells from NHD13 mice. In addition to the increase in ROS, increased DNA double strand breaks and activation of a G2/M phase cell cycle checkpoint were noted in NHD13 BMNC. Finally, using an in vivo assay for mutation frequency, we detected an increased mutation frequency in NHD13 BMNC. These results suggest that oxidative stress may contribute to disease progression of MDS to AML through ineffective repair of DNA damage and acquisition of oncogenic mutations.
Project description:Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a group of clonal hematopoietic diseases which have a high risk of progressing to acute myeloid leukemia. MDS patients have immunologic deficiency, including T and B cells dysfunction. Follicular T helper cells (Tfh, CD4+CXCR5+) are an important subset of helper T cells which help to the formation of germinal centers and B cells differentiation. In this study, we investigated the proportion and function of Tfh using NUP98-HOXD13 transgenic (NHD13) mice model with MDS phenotype. The proportion of Tfh from bone marrow and spleen of NHD13 mice decreased compared with wild type (WT) mice tested by flow cytometry. In NHD13 mice spleens, there were decreased CXCR5+ cells and increased PD-1+ cells using immunohistochemistry. The active markers (ICOS, CD40L and OX40) expressed on Tfh of NHD13 mice were decreased. In contrast, PD-1 expression on Tfh of NHD13 mice was higher than that of WT mice. After coculture with Tfh from NHD13 mice, IgG and IgM production of B cells were decreased. In conclusion, the proportion and function of Tfh in the MDS mice model were altered. The dysfunction and reduction of Tfh may inhibit B cells differentiation and antibody production. Abnormal Tfh might contribute to the immune tolerance promoting the progression of MDS.