Project description:The bacterial species Xanthomonas arboricola contains plant pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains. It includes the pathogen X. arboricola pv. juglandis, causing the bacterial blight of Juglans regia. The emergence of a new bacterial disease of J. regia in France called vertical oozing canker (VOC) was previously described and the causal agent was identified as a distinct genetic lineage within the pathovar juglandis. Symptoms on walnut leaves and fruits are similar to those of a bacterial blight but VOC includes also cankers on trunk and branches. In this work, we used comparative genomics and physiological tests to detect differences between four X. arboricola strains isolated from walnut tree: strain CFBP 2528 causing walnut blight (WB), strain CFBP 7179 causing VOC and two nonpathogenic strains, CFBP 7634 and CFBP 7651, isolated from healthy walnut buds. Whole genome sequence comparisons revealed that pathogenic strains possess a larger and wider range of mobile genetic elements than nonpathogenic strains. One pathogenic strain, CFBP 7179, possessed a specific integrative and conjugative element (ICE) of 95 kb encoding genes involved in copper resistance, transport and regulation. The type three effector repertoire was larger in pathogenic strains than in nonpathogenic strains. Moreover, CFBP 7634 strain lacked the type three secretion system encoding genes. The flagellar system appeared incomplete and nonfunctional in the pathogenic strain CFBP 2528. Differential sets of chemoreceptor and different repertoires of genes coding adhesins were identified between pathogenic and nonpathogenic strains. Besides these differences, some strain-specific differences were also observed. Altogether, this study provides valuable insights to highlight the mechanisms involved in ecology, environment perception, plant adhesion and interaction, leading to the emergence of new strains in a dynamic environment.
Project description:Xanthomonas arboricola is conventionally known as a taxon of plant-pathogenic bacteria that includes seven pathovars. This study showed that X. arboricola also encompasses nonpathogenic bacteria that cause no apparent disease symptoms on their hosts. The aim of this study was to assess the X. arboricola population structure associated with walnut, including nonpathogenic strains, in order to gain a better understanding of the role of nonpathogenic xanthomonads in walnut microbiota. A multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) was performed on a collection of 100 X. arboricola strains, including 27 nonpathogenic strains isolated from walnut. Nonpathogenic strains grouped outside clusters defined by pathovars and formed separate genetic lineages. A multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) conducted on a collection of X. arboricola strains isolated from walnut showed that nonpathogenic strains clustered separately from clonal complexes containing Xanthomonas arboricola pv. juglandis strains. Some nonpathogenic strains of X. arboricola did not contain the canonical type III secretion system (T3SS) and harbored only one to three type III effector (T3E) genes. In the nonpathogenic strains CFBP 7640 and CFBP 7653, neither T3SS genes nor any of the analyzed T3E genes were detected. This finding raises a question about the origin of nonpathogenic strains and the evolution of plant pathogenicity in X. arboricola. T3E genes that were not detected in any nonpathogenic isolates studied represent excellent candidates to be those responsible for pathogenicity in X. arboricola.
Project description:Here, we report the complete genome sequence of Xanthomonas arboricola pv. juglandis 417, a copper-resistant strain isolated from a blighted walnut fruit (Juglans regia L. cv. Chandler). The genome consists of a single chromosome (5,218 kb).
Project description:Here, we report the complete genome sequence of Xanthomonas arboricola pv. juglandis DW3F3, a strong pathogenic strain isolated from blighted walnut immature fruit (Juglans regia L. cv. Qingxiang). The genome consists of a single chromosome (5,144 kb).
Project description:Three bacteriophages, f20-Xaj, f29-Xaj, and f30-Xaj, with lytic activity against Xanthomonas arboricola pv. juglandis were isolated from walnut trees (VIII Bío Bío Region, Chile). These lytic bacteriophages have double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) genomes of 43,851 bp, 41,865 bp, and 44,262 bp, respectively. These are the first described bacteriophages with lytic activity against X. arboricola pv. juglandis that can be utilized as biocontrol agents.
Project description:Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Xanthomonas arboricola pv. juglandis J303, isolated from infected walnut trees in southern Chile. The size of the genome is 5,066,424 bp with a G+C content of 65.4%. X. arboricola pv. juglandis J303 has several genes related to virulence, antibiotic resistance, and copper resistance.
Project description:Following photosynthesis, sucrose is translocated to sink organs, where it provides the primary source of carbon and energy to sustain plant growth and development. Sugar transporters from the SWEET (sugar will eventually be exported transporter) family are rate-limiting factors that mediate sucrose transport across concentration gradients, sustain yields, and participate in reproductive development, plant senescence, stress responses, as well as support plant-pathogen interaction, the focus of this study. We identified 25 SWEET genes in the walnut genome and distinguished each by its individual gene structure and pattern of expression in different walnut tissues. Their chromosomal locations, cis-acting motifs within their 5' regulatory elements, and phylogenetic relationship patterns provided the first comprehensive analysis of the SWEET gene family of sugar transporters in walnut. This family is divided into four clades, the analysis of which suggests duplication and expansion of the SWEET gene family in Juglans regia. In addition, tissue-specific gene expression signatures suggest diverse possible functions for JrSWEET genes. Although these are commonly used by pathogens to harness sugar products from their plant hosts, little was known about their role during Xanthomonas arboricola pv. juglandis (Xaj) infection. We monitored the expression profiles of the JrSWEET genes in different tissues of "Chandler" walnuts when challenged with pathogen Xaj417 and concluded that SWEET-mediated sugar translocation from the host is not a trigger for walnut blight disease development. This may be directly related to the absence of type III secretion system-dependent transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) in Xaj417, which suggests different strategies are employed by this pathogen to promote susceptibility to this major aboveground disease of walnuts.
Project description:CRM66 (cross-reactive 66 kDa protein) is an inactive mutant form of Pseudomonas aeruginosa exotoxin A that has been isolated from a mutant strain of P. aeruginosa derived from nitrosoguanidine-based mutagenesis. The mutation within this enzyme toxin was previously identified as H426Y and it was shown to possess significantly reduced enzymic activity. Furthermore, it was previously suggested that His-426 may directly participate in the catalytic mechanism of the exotoxin A enzyme and that it may also play an important role in the binding of the protein substrate of exotoxin A, a critical protein factor in eukaryotic protein translation known as elongation factor-2. In order to more thoroughly characterize the role of His-426 in the enzyme mechanism of exotoxin A, amino acid substitutions were made within helix 1 of the enzyme domain in the vicinity of the His-426 residue. Analysis of the site-directed mutagenesis results involving kinetic and protein structural integrity measurements revealed that His-426 H-bonds to Tyr-502 and that replacement of His-426 with polar substitutions leads to structural alterations of the enzyme's folded conformation. Furthermore, it was shown that His-426 is not important for the binding of either of the two substrates of exotoxin A, NAD(+) or elongation factor-2. In summary, these data show that His-426 is not an active-site residue and that it is not important for substrate binding or orientation, but that it plays an important structural role in helping to maintain the folded conformation of the enzyme toxin. Therefore, the role of His-426 would seem to be to tether helix 1 to the main body of the enzyme, and mutations resulting in the disruption of this region of the enzyme result in a significantly impaired enzyme.